Linux Internals Training
5-day session

 
Overview
Understanding Virtual memory, Process concepts, IPC, File Systems EXT2
Understanding Shell programming
Understanding Boot process
Understanding cross compilation and installing Linux installation on
embedded hardware
Understanding developing application for embedded systems
Duration
Five days - 40 hours (8hours a day)
50% of lecture, 50% of practical labs.

Trainer
Audience
Professional Software developers
People supporting embedded and medium scale products.

Prerequisite
Knowledge of c programming
All examples are provided through c programming language.
Knowledge of c programming is required.
C training slides can browsed at
http://www.minhinc.com/training/c/advance-c-slides.php

Pdf document can be downloaded from
http://www.minhinc.com/training/advance-c-slides.pdf
Setup
Ubuntu 16.0x LTS
Raspberry Pi3
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Lecture
Lecture session will be course content presentation through the trainer.
Any source code example related to the topic will be demonstrated, it would
include executing the binaries. Complete lecture material can be downloaded from
http://www.minhinc.com/training/advance-li-slides.pdf
Labs
Lecture session will be course content presentation through the trainer.
Any source code example related to the topic will be demonstrated, it would
include executing the binaries.
Day 1 Morning

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Day 1 Afternoon

     Lab
Day 2 Morning

Day 2 Afternoon

     Lab
Day 3 Morning

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Day 3 Afternoon

     Lab
Day 4 Morning

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Day 4 Afternoon

     Lab
Day 5 Morning

Day 5 Afternoon

     Lab
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Day 1 Morning
  1. Introduction to Linux

a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any changes.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

Day 1 Morning
  1. Introduction to Linux

* 1991: The Linux kernel is publicly announced on 25 August by the 21-year-old Finnish student Linus Benedict Torvalds.^[13]
* 1992: The Linux kernel is relicensed under the GNU GPL. The first Linux distributions are created.
* 1993: Over 100 developers work on the Linux kernel. With their assistance the kernel is adapted to the GNU environment, which creates a large spectrum of application types for Linux. The oldest currently (as of 2015) existing Linux distribution, Slackware, is released for the first time. Later in the same year, the Debian project is established. Today it is the largest community distribution.
* 1994: Torvalds judges all components of the kernel to be fully matured: he releases version 1.0 of Linux. The XFree86 project contributes a graphical user interface (GUI). Commercial Linux distribution makers Red Hat and SUSE publish version 1.0 of their Linux distributions.
* 1995: Linux is ported to the DEC Alpha and to the Sun SPARC.Over the following years it is ported to an ever greater number of platforms.
* 1996: Version 2.0 of the Linux kernel is released. The kernel can now serve several processors at the same time using symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), and thereby becomes a serious alternative for many companies.
* 1998: Many major companies such as IBM, Compaq and Oracle announce their support for Linux. The Cathedral and the Bazaar is first published as an essay (later as a book), resulting in Netscape publicly releasing the source code to its Netscape Communicator web browser suite. Netscape's actions and crediting of the essay^[50] brings Linux's open source development model to the attention of the popular  technical press. In addition a group of programmers begins developing the graphical user interface KDE.
* 1999: A group of developers begin work on the graphical environment GNOME, destined to become a free replacement for KDE, which at the time, depends on the, then proprietary, Qt toolkit. During the year IBM announces an extensive project for the support of Linux.
* 2000: Dell announces that it is now the No. 2 provider of Linux-based systems worldwide and the first major  manufacturer to offer Linux across its full product
* 2002: The media reports that "Microsoft killed Dell Linux"^[52]
* 2004: The XFree86 team splits up and joins with the existing X standards body to form the X.Org Foundation, which results in a substantially faster development of the X server for Linux.
* 2005: The project openSUSE begins a free distribution from Novell's community. Also the project OpenOffice.org introduces version 2.0 that then started supporting OASIS OpenDocument standards.
* 2006: Oracle releases its own distribution of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.  Novell and Microsoft announce cooperation for a better interoperability and mutual patent protection.
* 2007: Dell starts distributing laptops with Ubuntu pre-installed on them.
* 2009: RedHat's market capitalization equals Sun's, interpreted as a symbolic moment for the "Linux-based  economy".^[53]
* 2011: Version 3.0 of the Linux kernel is released.
* 2012: The aggregate Linux server market revenue exceeds that of the rest of the Unix market.^[54]
* 2013: Google's Linux-based Android claims 75% of the smartphone market share, in terms of the number of phones  shipped.^[55]
* 2014: Ubuntu claims 22,000,000 users.^[56]
* 2015: Version 4.0 of the Linux kernel is released.

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Day 1 Morning
  1. Introduction to Linux

Device comes in two flavours:
- A character device represents a hardware device that reads or writes a serial stream of data bytes. Serial and parallel ports, tape drives, terminal devices, and sound cards.

-A block device represents a hardware device that reads or write data in fixed size blocks.unlike a character device, a block device provides random access to data stored on the device.a disk drive is an example of a block device.

Linux identifies devices using two numbers:the major device number and the minor device number.

Major device number generally identifies a driver where as minor number identifies devices controlled by the driver.so actual device is identified as major:minor combination. A device can be master and slave. master are identified with 1,2,3... and slaves as 65,66,67...

For each device there is a device file or device entry in the file system.cp rm mv commands works on device file as regular file.data transfer happens from actual device through device driver. use mknod to create file entry for the device.

$mknod ./lp0 c 6 0
lp0 - path to the device file
c - character device, b for block device
6 - major device number, driver id
0 - minor master device number

$ls -l lp0
crw-r----- 1 root root 6, 0 Mar 7 17:03 lp0
#include <stdio.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[]){
stat("lp0")
printf("file type
");
printf("major file number
");
printf("minor file number
");
return 0;
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}
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Day 1 Morning
  2. Introduction to Kernel

History
- UNIX: 1969 Thompson & Ritchie AT&T Bell Labs.
- BSD: 1978 Berkeley Software Distribution.
- Commercial Vendors: Sun, HP, IBM, SGI, DEC.
- GNU: 1984 Richard Stallman, FSF.
- POSIX: 1986 IEEE Portable Operating System unIX.
- Minix: 1987 Andy Tannenbaum.
- SVR4: 1989 AT&T and Sun.
- Linux: 1991 Linus Torvalds Intel 386 (i386).
- Open Source: GPL.

Linux Features
- UNIX-like operating system - Features: - Preemptive multitasking. - Virtual memory (protected memory, paging). - Shared libraries. - Demand loading, dynamic kernel modules. - Shared copy-on-write executables. - TCP/IP networking. - SMP support. - Open source.
What's a Kernel?
- AKA: executive, system monitor. - Controls and mediates access to hardware. - Implements and supports fundamental abstractions: - Processes, files, devices etc. - Schedules / allocates system resources: - Memory, CPU, disk, descriptors, etc. - Enforces security and protection. - Responds to user requests for service (system calls). - Etc...
Kernel Design Goals
- Performance: efficiency, speed. - Utilize resources to capacity with low overhead. - Stability: robustness, resilience. - Uptime, graceful degradation. - Capability: features, flexibility, compatibility. - Security, protection. - Protect users from each other & system from bad users. - Portability. - Extensibility.
Kernel Modules

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Day 1 Morning
  2. Introduction to Kernel

Types of Kernel
- Monolithic.
- Layered.
- Modularized.
- Micro-kernel.
- Virtual machine.


A monolithic kernel is a kernel where all services (file system, VFS, device drivers, etc) as well as core functionality (scheduling, memory allocation, etc.) are a tight knit group sharing the same space. This directly opposes a microkernel.

A monolithic kernel is a kernel architecture where the entire operating system is working in the kernel space and alone as supervisor mode. In difference with other architectures,1 the monolithic kernel defines alone a high-level virtual interface over computer hardware, with a set of primitives or system calls to implement all operating system services such as process management, concurrency, and memory management itself and one or more device drivers as modules.

A microkernel prefers an approach where core functionality is isolated from system services and device drivers (which are basically just system services). For instance, VFS (virtual file system) and block device file systems (i.e. minixfs) are separate processes that run outside of the kernel's space, using IPC to communicate with the kernel, other services and user processes. In short, if it's a module in Linux, it's a service in a microkernel, indicating an isolated process.

Recent versions of Windows on the other hand use a Hybrid kernel.

A hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. The category is controversial due to the similarity to monolithic kernel; the term has been dismissed by some as simple marketing. The traditional kernel categories are monolithic kernels and microkernels (with nanokernels and exokernels seen as more extreme versions of microkernels).

Day 1 Morning
  2. Introduction to Kernel

The Linux Kernel
-Monolithic
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Day 1 Morning
  2. Introduction to Kernel

Linux Source Tree

linux/arch
- Subdirectories for each current port. - Each contains kernel, lib, mm, boot and other directories whose contents override code stubs in architecture independent code. - lib directory contains highly-optimized common utility routines such as memcpy, checksums, etc. - arch directory as of 2.4: - alpha, arm, i386, ia64, m68k, mips, mips64. - ppc, s390, sh, sparc, sparc64.
linux/drivers
- Largest amount of code in the kernel tree (~1.5M). - device, bus, platform and general directories. - drivers/char - n_tty.c is the default line discipline. - drivers/block - elevator.c, genhd.c, linear.c, ll_rw_blk.c, raidN.c. - drivers/net - specific drivers and general routines Space.c and net_init.c. - drivers/scsi - scsi_*.c files are generic; sd.c (disk), sr.c (CD- ROM), st.c (tape), sg.c (generic). - General: - cdrom, ide, isdn, parport, pcmcia, pnp, sound, telephony, video. - Buses - fc4, i2c, nubus, pci, sbus, tc, usb. - Platforms - acorn, macintosh, s390, sgi.
linux/fs
- Contains: - virtual filesystem (VFS) framework. - subdirectories for actual filesystems. - vfs-related files: - exec.c, binfmt_*.c - files for mapping new process images. - devices.c, blk_dev.c - device registration, block device support. - super.c, filesystems.c. - inode.c, dcache.c, namei.c, buffer.c, file_table.c. - open.c, read_write.c, select.c, pipe.c, fifo.c. - fcntl.c, ioctl.c, locks.c, dquot.c, stat.c.
linux/include
- include/asm-*:
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   - Architecture-dependent include subdirectories.
- include/linux:
   - Header info needed both by the kernel and user apps.
   - Usually linked to /usr/include/linux.
   - Kernel-only portions guarded by #ifdefs
       - #ifdef __KERNEL__
       -      /* kernel stuff */
       - #endif
- Other directories:
   - math-emu, net, pcmcia, scsi, video.

linux/init
- Just two files: version.c, main.c. - version.c - contains the version banner that prints at boot. - main.c - architecture-independent boot code. - start_kernel is the primary entry point.
linux/ipc
- System V IPC facilities. - If disabled at compile-time, util.c exports stubs that simply return -ENOSYS. - One file for each facility: - sem.c - semaphores. - shm.c - shared memory. - msg.c - message queues.
linux/kernel
- The core kernel code. - sched.c - "the main kernel file": - scheduler, wait queues, timers, alarms, task queues. - Process control: - fork.c, exec.c, signal.c, exit.c etc... - Kernel module support: - kmod.c, ksyms.c, module.c. - Other operations: - time.c, resource.c, dma.c, softirq.c, itimer.c. - printk.c, info.c, panic.c, sysctl.c, sys.c.
linux/lib
- kernel code cannot call standard C library routines. - Files: - brlock.c - "Big Reader" spinlocks. - cmdline.c - kernel command line parsing routines. - errno.c - global definition of errno. - inflate.c - "gunzip" part of gzip.c used during boot. - string.c - portable string code. - Usually replaced by optimized, architecture- dependent routines. - vsprintf.c - libc replacement.
linux/mm
- Paging and swapping: - swap.c, swapfile.c (paging devices), swap_state.c (cache). - vmscan.c - paging policies, kswapd. - page_io.c - low-level page transfer. - Allocation and deallocation: - slab.c - slab allocator. - page_alloc.c - page-based allocator. - vmalloc.c - kernel virtual-memory allocator. - Memory mapping: - memory.c - paging, fault-handling, page table code. - filemap.c - file mapping. - mmap.c, mremap.c, mlock.c, mprotect.c.
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linux/scripts
- Scripts for: - Menu-based kernel configuration. - Kernel patching. - Generating kernel documentation.
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Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

Shell structure
Shell scripting has four components 1) Kernel 2) Shell Process 3) Command Process 4) Redirectors, Pipes, Filters etc. Kernel does - I/O management - Process management - File management - Memory management
-----------          -----------------            -------------
|  User   | ------>  |   Linux Shell | ---------> |  Kernel   |
-----------          -----------------            -------------
                             |
                             V
                    -------------------
                    | command process |
                    -------------------


Shells

NOTE: To find your shell type following command
$ echo $SHELL

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Linux Common Commands
$ date --help $ ls --help | more
Syntax: command-name --help
Syntax: man command-name
Syntax: info command-name

$ man ls
$ info bash
NOTE: In MS-DOS, you get help by using /? clue or by typing help command as
C:\> dir /?
C:\> date /?
C:\> help time
C:\> help date
C:\> help

Linux Command
$ date $ who $ pwd $ ls $ cat > myfile $ more myfile $ mv sales $ ln Page1 Book1 $ rm myfile $ rm -rf oldfiles $ chmod u+x,g+wx,o+x myscript $ mail $ who am i $ logout $ mail ashish $ wc myfile $ grep fox $ sort myfile $ tail +5 myfile $ cmp myfile $ pr myfile
Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

Process
A process is program (command given by user) to perform some Job. In Linux when you start process, it gives a number (called PID or process-id), PID starts from 0 to 65535. $ ls -lR , is command or a request to list files in a directory and all sub directory in your current directory.
Why Process required
Linux is multi-user, multitasking o/s. It means you can run more than two process simultaneously if you wish. For e.g.. To find how many files do you have on your system you may give command like $ ls / -R | wc -l This command will take lot of time to search all files on your system. So you can run such command in Background or simultaneously by giving command like
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$ ls / -R | wc -l &
The ampersand (&) at the end of command tells shells start command (ls / -R | wc -l) and run it in background takes next command immediately. An instance of
running command is called process and the number printed by shell is called process-id (PID), this PID can be use to refer specific running process.

Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

Redirection of Standard output/input or Input - Output redirection
(1) > Redirector Symbol (Truncate to zero and write)
Syntax: Linux-command > filename
$ ls > myfiles
(2) >> Redirector Symbol  (Append)
Syntax: Linux-command >> filename
$ date >> myfiles
(3) < Redirector Symbol
Syntax: Linux-command < filename
To take input to Linux-command from file instead of key-board. For e.g. To take input for cat command give
$ cat < myfiles

Pipes
A pipe is a way to connect the output of one program to the input of another program without any temporary file.

A pipe is nothing but a temporary storage place where the output of one command is stored and then passed as the input for second command. Pipes are used to run more than two commands ( Multiple commands) from same command line.
Syntax: command1 | command2

Filter
A filter command takes input from a pipe and constricts the output of the previous program.
$ tail +20 < hotel.txt | head -n30 >hlist
Here head is filter which takes its input from tail command (tail command start
selecting from line number 20 of given file i.e. hotel.txt) and passes this lines to
input to head, whose output is redirected to 'hlist' file.

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Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

Introduction to Shell Programming
Shell program is series of Linux commands. Variables in Linux Sometimes to process our data/information, variables are remembered by shell Process. 1) System variables - Created and maintained by Linux itself. This type of variable defined in CAPITAL LETTERS. 2) User defined variables (UDV) - Created and maintained by user. This type of variable defined in lower LETTERS.

$ echo $USERNAME
$ echo $HOME
Caution: Do not modify System variable this can some time create problems.

User Defined Variable
Syntax: variablename=value NOTE: Here 'value' is assigned to given 'variablename' and Value must be on right side = sign For e.g.
$ no=10           # this is ok
$ 10=no           # Error, NOT Ok, Value must be on right side of = sign.
To define variable called 'vech' having value Bus

$ vech=Bus
To define variable called n having value 10
$ n=10

You can define NULL variable as follows (NULL variable is variable which has no value at the time of definition) For e.g.
$ vech=
$ vech=""
Try to print it's value $ echo $vech , Here nothing will be shown because variable has no value i.e. NULL variable.

To print or access variables use following syntax
Syntax: $variablename
For eg. To print contains of variable 'vech'
$ echo $vech

How to Run Shell Scripts
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(1) Use chmod command as follows to give execution permission to our script
Syntax: chmod +x shell-script-name
OR Syntax: chmod 777 shell-script-name
(2) Run our script as
Syntax: ./your-shell-program-name
For e.g.
$ ./first

OR /bin/sh your-shell-program-name
For e.g.
$ bash first
$ /bin/sh first

Script file name complete path is required OR  PATH variable needs to be set.
To run the script, file name complete path is required


OR  PATH variable needs to be set.

Commands Related with Shell Programming
(1)echo [options] [string, variables...] Displays text or variables value on screen. Options
-n Do not output the trailing new line.
-e Enable interpretation of the following backslash escaped characters in the strings:
\a alert (bell)
\b backspace
\c suppress trailing new line

 new line
\r carriage return
\t horizontal tab
\\ backslash
For eg. $ echo -e "An apple a day keeps away \a\t\tdoctor
"

(2)More about Quotes
There are three types of quotes
" i.e. Double Quotes
' i.e. Single quotes
` i.e. Back quote
1."Double Quotes" - Anything enclose in double quotes removed meaning of that characters (except \ and $).
2. 'Single quotes' - Enclosed in single quotes remains unchanged.
3. `Back quote` - To execute command.
For eg.
$ echo "Today is date"
Can't print message with today's date.
$ echo "Today is `date`".
Now it will print today's date as, Today is Tue Jan ....,See the `date` statement uses back quote,
(See also Shell Arithmetic NOTE).

3) Shell Arithmetic
Use to perform arithmetic operations For e.g.
$ expr 1 + 3
$ expr 2 - 1
$ expr 10 / 2
$ expr 20 % 3 # remainder read as 20 mod 3 and remainder is 2)
$ expr 10 \* 3 # Multiplication use \* not * since its wild card)
$ echo `expr 6 + 3`
For the last statement note the following points
1) First, before expr keyword we used ` (back quote) sign not the (single quote i.e. ') sign. Back
quote is generally found on the key under tilde (~) on PC keyboards OR To the above of TAB key.
2) Second, expr is also end with ` i.e. back quote.
3) Here expr 6 + 3 is evaluated to 9, then echo command prints 9 as sum
4) Here if you use double quote or single quote, it will NOT work, For eg.
$ echo "expr 6 + 3" # It will print expr 6 + 3
$ echo 'expr 6 + 3'

Command Line arguments
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$ myshell foo bar

Command line arguments or Function arguments

Exit Status
By default in Linux if particular command is executed, it return two type of values, if return value is zero (0), command is successful If return value is nonzero (>0), command is not successful or some sort of error executing command/shell script. This value is know as Exit Status of that command. To determine this exit Status we use $? variable of shell. For eg. $ rm unknow1file rm: cannot remove 'unkowm1file': No such file or directory and after that if you give command $ echo $? it will print nonzero value(>0) to indicate error. Now give command $ ls $ echo $? It will print 0 to indicate command is successful.
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Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

If-then-fi for decision making is shell script
$ bc
follows type 5 + 2 as
5+2
7
7 is response of bc i.e. addition of 5 + 2 you can even try
5-2
5/2
Now what happened if you type 5 > 2 as follows
5>2
0


Syntax:
if condition
 then
    command1 if condition is true or if exit status
    of condition is 0 (zero)
     ...
     ...
fi

$ cat > showfile
#!/bin/sh
#
#Script to print file
#
if cat $1
then
    echo -e "

File $1, found and successfully echoed"
fi

test command or [ expr ]
test command or [ expr ] is used to see if an expression is true, and if it is true it return zero(0), otherwise returns nonzero(>0) for false. Syntax: test expression OR [ expression ] Now will write script that determine whether given argument number is positive. Write script as follows $ cat > ispostive
#!/bin/sh
#
# Script to see whether argument is positive
#
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if test $1 -gt 0
then
    echo "$1 number is positive"
fi

Or

$ cat > ispostive
#!/bin/sh
#
# Script to see whether argument is positive
#
If [ test $1 -gt 0 ]
then
    echo "$1 number is positive"
fi

test or [ expr] works with
1.Integer ( Number without decimal point)
2.File types
3.Character strings
For Mathematics use following operator in Shell Script


NOTE: == is equal, != is not equal.
For string Comparisons use


Shell also test for file and directory types


if...else...fi
If given condition is true then command1 is executed otherwise command2 is executed. Syntax:
if condition
then
  command1 if condition is true or if exit status
  of condition is 0(zero)
  ...
  ...
else
 command2 if condition is false or if exit status
 of condition is >0 (nonzero)
 ...
 ...
fi

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$ cat > isnump_n
#!/bin/sh
# Script to see whether argument is positive or negative
#
if [ $# -eq 0 ]
then
      echo "$0 : You must give/supply one integers"
      exit 1
fi
if test $1 -gt 0
then
      echo "$1 number is positive"
else
      echo "$1 number is negative"
fi
Multilevel if-then-else
Syntax:
if condition
then
 condition is zero (true - 0)
 execute all commands up to elif statement
elif condition1
 condition1 is zero (true - 0)
 execute all commands up to elif statement
elif condition2
 condition2 is zero (true - 0)
 execute all commands up to elif statement
else
 None of the above condtion,condtion1,condtion2 are true (i.e.
 all of the above nonzero or false)
 execute all commands up to fi
fi

for loop Syntax:
for { variable name } in { list } do execute one for each item in the list until the list is not finished (And repeat all statement between do and done) done

Suppose,
$ cat > testfor
for i in 1 2 3 4 5
do
    echo "Welcome $i times"
done
Run it as,
$ chmod +x testfor
$ ./testfor

while loop
Syntax:
while [ condition ]
do
 command1
 command2
 command3
 ..
 ....
done

$cat > nt1
#!/bin/sh
#Script to test while statement
if [ $# -eq 0 ]
then
     echo "Error - Number missing form command line argument"
     echo "Syntax : $0 number"
     echo " Use to print multiplication table for given number"
     exit 1
fi
n=$1
i=1
while [ $i -le 10 ]
do
   echo "$n * $i = `expr $i \* $n`"
   i=`expr $i + 1`
done

The case Statement
The case statement is good alternative to Multilevel if-then-else-fi statement. It enable you to match several values against one variable. Its easier to read and write.
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Syntax:
case     $variable-name in
pattern1)             command
 ..
 command;;
pattern2)             command
 ..
 command;;
patternN) command
 ..
 command;;
 *)           command
 ..
 command;;
esac

The $variable-name is compared against the patterns until a match is found. The shell then executes all the statements up to the two semicolons that are next to each other. The default is *) and its executed if no match is found. For eg. Create script as follows
$ cat > car
#
# if no vehicle name is given
# i.e. -z $1 is defined and it is NULL
#
# if no command line arg
if [ -z $1 ]
then
      rental="*** Unknown vehicle ***"
elif [ -n $1 ]
then
# otherwise make first arg as rental
      rental=$1
fi
case $rental in
   "car") echo "For $rental Rs.20 per k/m";;
   "van") echo "For $rental Rs.10 per k/m";;
   "jeep") echo "For $rental Rs.5 per k/m";;
   "bicycle") echo "For $rental 20 paisa per k/m";;
   *) echo "Sorry, I can not gat a $rental for you";;
esac

Save it by pressing CTRL+D
$ chmod +x car
$ car van
$ car car
$ car Maruti-800

The read Statement
Use to get input from keyboard and store them to variable.
Syntax: read varible1, varible2,...varibleN
Create script as
$ cat > sayH
#
#Script to read your name from key-board
#
echo "Your first name please:"
read fname
echo "Hello $fname, Lets be friend!"
Run it as follows
$ chmod +x sayH
$ ./sayH

Filename Shorthand or meta Characters (i.e. wild cards)
* or ? or [...] is one of such shorthand character. * Matches any string or group of characters. For e.g. $ ls * , will show all files, $ ls a* - will show all files whose first name is starting with letter 'a', $ ls *.c ,will show all files having extension .c $ ls ut*.c, will show all files having extension .c but first two letters of file name must be 'ut'. ? Matches any single character. For e.g. $ ls ? , will show one single letter file name, $ ls fo? , will show all files whose names are 3 character long and file name begin with fo [...] Matches any one of the enclosed characters. For e.g. $ ls [abc]* - will show all files beginning with letters a,b,c [..-..] A pair of characters separated by a minus sign denotes a range; For eg. $ ls /bin/[a-c]* - will show all files name beginning with letter a,b or c like /bin/arch /bin/awk /bin/bsh /bin/chmod /bin/cp /bin/ash /bin/basename /bin/cat /bin/chown /bin/cpio /bin/ash.static /bin/bash /bin/chgrp /bin/consolechars /bin/csh

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But

$ ls /bin/[!a-o]
$ ls /bin/[^a-o]

command1;command2
To run two command with one command line.For eg. $ date;who ,Will print today's date followed http://www.freeos.com/guides/lsst/shellprog.htm (18 of 19) [17/08/2001 17.42.21] Linux Shell Script Tutorial by users who are currently login.
Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

/dev/null - Use to send unwanted output of program
Syntax: command > /dev/null For e.g. $ ls > /dev/null , output of this command is not shown on screen its send to this special file. The /dev directory contains other device files. The files in this directory mostly represent peripheral devices such disks liks floppy disk, sound card, line printers etc.
local and Global Shell variable (export command)
Normally all our variables are local. Local variable can be used in same shell, if you load another copy of shell (by typing the /bin/bash at the $ prompt) then new shell ignored all old shell's variable. For e.g. Consider following example $ vech=Bus $ echo $vech Bus $ /bin/bash $ echo $vech NOTE:-Empty line printed $ vech=Car $ echo $vech Car $ exit $ echo $vech
Syntax: export variable1, variable2,.....variableN
For e.g. $ vech=Bus $ echo $vech Bus $ export vech $ /bin/bash $ echo $vech Bus $ exit $ echo $vech
Conditional execution i.e. && and ||
The control operators are && (read as AND) and || (read as OR). An AND list has the Syntax: command1 && command2
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Here command2 is executed if, and only if, command1 returns an exit status of zero. An OR list has the
Syntax: command1 || command2
Here command2 is executed if and only if command1 returns a non-zero exit status. You can use both as follows
command1 && comamnd2 if exist status is zero || command3 if exit status is non-zero
Here if command1 is executed successfully then shell will run command2 and if command1 is not successful then command3 is executed. For e.g.
$ rm myf && echo File is removed successfully || echo File is not removed
If file (myf) is removed successful (exist status is zero) then "echo File is removed successfully" statement is executed, otherwise "echo File is not removed" statement is executed (since exist status is non-zero)

Functions
Function is series of instruction/commands. Function performs particular activity in shell. To define function use following Syntax:
function-name ( )
{
 command1
 command2
 .....
 ...
 commandN
 return
}

Where function-name is name of you function, that executes these commands. A return statement will terminate the function. For e.g. Type SayHello() at $ prompt as follows
$ SayHello()
{
echo "Hello $LOGNAME, Have nice computing"
return
}
$ SayHello
Hello xxxxx, Have nice computing
Edit /etc/bashrc (as root) or ~/.bashrc for executing function at login time.

I/O Redirection and file descriptors
$ cat > myf
      This is my file
      ^D
Above command send output of cat command to myf file. Redirection can be used to send output to stderr, stdout and can be used to read input for stdin files


[sc@localhost ~]$ rm > tmp1
rm: missing operand
Try 'rm --help' for more information.
[sc@localhost ~]$ cat tmp1
[sc@localhost ~]$ rm > tmp1 2>&1
[sc@localhost ~]$ cat tmp1
rm: missing operand
Try 'rm --help' for more information.
[sc@localhost ~]$


Array
Arrays are define as ar=(one two three) for i in 2 4 5 6; do done for i in {1..6}; do
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done

${ar[1]} ${ar[2]} ...

$ar[*] or $ar[@]  # for list

${#ar[*]}  # for number of elements

for i in ${ar[@]}; do
done

Day 1 Morning
  3. Shell commands & Shell

Constituents of a make file
* Rules
* Variables
* Directives
  - Inclusion of another make
  - Conditional directives
* Comments
  - Text that follows # symbol is treated as comment
  - To include # literally, prefix with \

Rules
Syntax
target1 [target2] : [prerequisite1] [prerequisite2]
<TAB>command-1
<TAB>command-2


* Explicit rule
  - explicitly specify the prerequisites for a specific target
* Implicit rules
  - Take advantage of the knowledge make has about known patterns of files (e.g., .c, .cpp .o, .s)
  - Further classified into pattern rules & suffix rules

 Variables
Predefined
o Some commonly used variables predefined by GNU make CC , FLAGS , CFLAGS, LDFLAGS, $@, $^, $<

$@ name of the target
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               foo1.o: foo1.c foo1.h
$<    name of the first prerequisite
               gcc -c $<
$^       names of all prerequisites

foo: foo1.o foo2.o
	gcc -o $@ $^

foo: foo1.o foo2.o
	gcc -o foo foo1.o foo2.o

foo2.o: foo2.c foo2.h
	gcc -c $<
foo2.o: foo2.c foo2.h foo1.h
 gcc -c foo2.c

User defined
ABC:=10  # const assigment
ABC=10 # non const assignment

Command line  variables
Variables can be defined or redefined from command line
$ make
$ make VAR1=abc VAR2=xyz

Use override directive to let undesirable command line redefines for a variable be ignored
ex.
VAR1=dummy
VAR2=
All:
	echo  VAR1 =  $(VAR1)
	echo VAR2 = override    $(VAR2)
	VAR1=dummy

Conditional assingment
ARCH ?= x86
Append
SRC += x.c

Implicit rules

Wildcard
foo: *.o
gcc -o $@ $^X

Functions
General syntax
  $(function-name arg1[,argn])
       SRC := x.c y.c z.c
* String functions
- $(subst search-str,replace-str,text)
           OBJS := $(subst .c,.o,$(SRC))
- $(patsubst search-pat,replace-pat,text)
           OBJS := $(patsubst %.c, obj/%.o, x.c y.c z.c)

* Warning function
   - Very useful for debugging
   - Can be placed anywhere in a makefile
             $(warning TARGET not defined)
     outputs in the format
     <filename>:<linenum>:TARGET not defined
* Shell function
   - Can be used to invoke any external program
             today := $(shell date)
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Wildcard function
SRCS := $(wildcard *.c)
OBJS := $(subst .c,.o,$(SRCS))

foo: $(OBJS)
	gcc -c $< cc -o $@ $^
foo2.o: foo2.c foo2.h foo1.h
  gcc -c $<
foo1.o: foo1.c foo1.h
 gcc -c $<


Pattern rule
foo : foo1.o foo2.o
	g++ -o $@ $^
foo2.o: foo2.h  foo1.h
foo1.o: foo1.h

# pattern rule for .cpp to .o
 %.o : %.cpp
	g++ -c $<

More advanced
  %.o:%.c
       $(COMPILE.c) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $<
where
   COMPILE.c =$(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS ) $(TARGET_ARCH) -c
   CC =cc
   OUTPUT_OPTION =-o $@


conditionals
conditional-directive
    text-if-true
endif

conditional-directive
    text-if-true
else
    text-if-false
endif

Conditional directives
 - ifeq
 - ifneq
 - ifdef variable-name
 - ifndef variable-name
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Day 2 Morning
  4. Creating Libraries
Refer
http://www.minhinc.com/training/cpp/advance-cpp-slides.php#chap1_7

Day 2 Morning
  4. Creating Libraries

Dynamic Loading and Unloading
This functionality is available under Linux by using the dlopen function.
 dlopen ("libtest.so", RTLD_LAZY)

The second parameter is a flag that indicates how to bind symbols in the shared
Library.
Include the <dlfcn.h> header file and link with the -ldl option to pick up the
libdl library.

void* handle = dlopen ("libtest.so", RTLD_LAZY);
void (*test)() = dlsym (handle, "my_function");
(*test)();
dlclose (handle);

Both dlopen and dlsym return NULL if they do not succeed. In that event, you can call dlerror (with no parameters) to obtain a human-readable error message describing the problem.

C++ file linking to C shared library
If you're writing the code in your shared library in C++, you will probably want to declare those functions and variables that you plan to access elsewhere with the
extern "C" linkage specifier.
   extern "C" void foo ();
This prevents the C++ compiler from mangling the function name, which would change the function's name from foo to a different, funny-looking name that encodes extra information about the function. A C compiler will not mangle names; it will use whichever name you give to your function or variable.
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Day 2 Morning
  5. The Boot Process

Linux Boot flow


Booting Sequence

1. Tern on
2. CPU jump to address of BIOS (0xFFFF0)
3. BIOS runs POST (Power-On Self Test)
4. Find bootale devices
5. Loads and execute boot sector form MBR
6. Load OS

Day 2 Morning
  5. The Boot Process

BIOS refers to the software code run by a computer when first powered on
The primary function of BIOS is code program embedded on a chip that recognizes and controls various devices that make up the computer.


MBR Master Boot Record
- OS is booted from a hard disk, where the Master Boot Record (MBR) contains the primary boot loader
- The MBR is a 512-byte sector, located in the first sector on the disk (sector 1 of cylinder 0, head 0)
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- After the MBR is loaded into RAM, the BIOS yields control to it.


MBR, Master Boot Record

 - The first 446 bytes are the primary boot loader, which contains both executable code and error message text
 - The next sixty-four bytes are the partition table, which contains a record for each of four partitions
 - The MBR ends with two bytes that are defined as the magic number (0xAA55). The magic number serves as a validation check of the MBR

Extract MBR, Master Boot Record
# dd if=/dev/hda of=mbr.bin bs=512 count=1
# od -xa mbr.bin

Day 2 Morning
  5. The Boot Process

Boot Loader
 - Boot loader or kernel loader first decompress kernel zImage file then calls kernel start_kernel() function passing the arguments.
 - Optional, initial RAM disk
 - GRUB and LILO are the most popular Linux boot loader.

List of Boot loaders
bootman, GRUB, LILO, NTLDR, XOSL, BootX, loadlin, Gujin, Boot Camp, Syslinux, GAG

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GRUB Boot Loader
 - GRUB is an operating system independent boot loader
 - A multi-boot software packet from GNU
 - Flexible command line interface
 - File system access
 - Support multiple executable format
 - Support disk less system
 - Download OS from network

GRUB Boot Process
1. The BIOS finds a bootable device (hard disk) and transfers control to the master boot record
2. The MBR contains GRUB stage 1. Given the small size of the MBR, Stage 1 just load the next stage of GRUB
3. GRUB Stage 1.5 is located in the first 30 kilobytes of hard disk immediately following the MBR. Stage 1.5 loads Stage 2.
4. GRUB Stage 2 receives control, and displays to the user the GRUB boot menu (where the user can manually specify the boot parameters).
5. GRUB loads the user-selected (or default) kernel into memory and passes control on to the kernel.

GRUB Config File


LILO: LInux LOader
 - A versatile boot manager that supports:
    - Choice of Linux kernels.
    - Boot time kernel parameters.
    - Booting non-Linux kernels.
    - A variety of configurations.
 - Characteristics:
    - Lives in MBR or partition boot sector.
    - Has no knowledge of filesystem structure so...
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    - Builds a sector "map file" (block map) to find kernel.
 - /sbin/lilo - "map installer".
    - /etc/lilo.conf is lilo configuration file.LILO Boot Loader

lilo.conf

Kernel Booting, Init process
Kernel execute init(pid 1) program,  getting init process.
 - Init is the root/parent of all processes executing on Linux
 - The first processes that init starts is a script /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit
 - Based on the appropriate run-level, scripts are executed to start various processes to run the system and make it functional
 - Init is responsible for starting system processes as defined in the /etc/inittab file
 - Init typically will start multiple instances of "getty" which waits for console logins which spawn one's user shell process
 - Upon shutdown, init controls the sequence and processes for shutdown

Process ID    Description
0             The Scheduler
1             The init process
2               kflushd
3               kupdate
4               kpiod
5               kswapd
6               mdrecoveryd

Linux files structure
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Day 3 Morning
  6. The File System

The File System

Filesystems are containers of files, that are stored, probably in a directory tree, together with attributes, like size, owner, creation date and the like. A filesystem has a type. It defines how things are arranged on the disk. For example, one has the types minix, ext2, reiserfs, iso9660, vfat, hfs.

Linux File System Layout

Inode and direntry


$mkdir testdir

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Inode
An (in-core) inode contains the metadata of a file: its serial number, its protection (mode), its owner, its size, the dates of last access, creation and last modification, etc. It also points to the superblock of the filesystem the file is in, the methods for this file, and the dentries (names) for this file.

struct inode {
unsigned long i_ino;
umode_t i_mode;
uid_t i_uid;
gid_t i_gid;
kdev_t i_rdev;
loff_t i_size;
struct timespec i_atime;
struct timespec i_ctime;
struct timespec i_mtime;
struct super_block *i_sb;
struct inode_operations *i_op;
struct address_space *i_mapping;
struct list_head i_dentry;
...
}

User space stat structure provides similar interface

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int stat (const char *path, struct stat *buf);
int fstat (int fd, struct stat *buf);
int lstat (const char *path, struct stat *buf);

truct stat {
dev_t st_dev; /*ID of device containing file */
ino_t st_ino; /*inode number *
mode_t st_mode;  /*permissions */
nlink_t st_nlink; /*number of hard links */
uid_t st_uid; /*user ID of owner */
gid_t st_gid; /*group ID of owner */
dev_t st_rdev; /*device ID (if special file) */
off_t st_size; /*total size in bytes */
blksize_t st_blksize; /*blocksize for filesystem I/O */
blkcnt_t st_blocks; /* number of blocks allocated */
time_t st_atime; /*last access time */
time_t st_mtime; /*last modification time */
time_t st_ctime; /*last status change time */
};

lstat()  is  identical to stat(), except that if pathname is a symbolic link, then it returns information about the link itself, not  the  file that it refers to.

fstat() is identical to stat(), except that the file about which information is to be retrieved is specified by the file descriptor fd.

#include
#include
#include
#include
<sys/types.h>
<sys/stat.h>
<unistd.h>
<stdio.h>
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct stat sb;
int ret;
if (argc < 2) {
fprintf (stderr,
"usage: %s <file>
", argv[0]);
return 1;
}
ret = stat (argv[1], &sb);
if (ret) {
perror ("stat");
return 1;
}
printf ("%s is %ld bytes
",
argv[1], sb.st_size);
return 0;
}

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The following mask values are defined for the file type of the st_mode field:
S_IFMT     0170000   bit mask for the file type bit field
S_IFSOCK   0140000   socket
S_IFLNK    0120000   symbolic link
S_IFREG    0100000   regular file
S_IFBLK    0060000   block device
S_IFDIR    0040000   directory
S_IFCHR    0020000   character device
S_IFIFO    0010000   FIFO

Thus, to test for a regular file (for example), one could write:
stat(pathname, &sb);
if ((sb.st_mode & S_IFMT) == S_IFREG) {
/* Handle regular file */
}

#include "apue.h"
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
int          i;
struct stat buf;
char         *ptr;
for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
 printf("%s: ", argv[i]);
 if (lstat(argv[i], &buf) < 0) {
  err_ret("lstat error");
   continue;
 }

 if (S_ISREG(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "regular";
 else if (S_ISDIR(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "directory";
 else if (S_ISCHR(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "character special";
 else if (S_ISBLK(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "block special";
 else if (S_ISFIFO(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "fifo";
 else if (S_ISLNK(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "symbolic link";
 else if (S_ISSOCK(buf.st_mode))
  ptr = "socket";
 else
 ptr = "** unknown mode **";
 printf("%s
", ptr);
}
 exit(0);
}

Printing all fields

# include <fcntl.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# include <time.h>
# include <sys/types.h>
# include<sys/stat.h>

main()
{
struct stat fst;
struct tm  *Time;
int fd;
fd = open("testfile",O_RDONLY);
fstat(fd,&fst);
printf("Listing the detailsd of the file
");
printf(" The inode no of the file is %d
",fst.st_ino);
printf(" The device ID  of the file is %d
",fst.st_dev);
printf(" The block size of the file system is %d
",fst.st_blksize);
printf("The user ID is %d
",fst.st_uid);
printf("The group ID is %d
",fst.st_gid);
printf("Access time is %d
",fst.st_atime);
printf("creation time is %d
",fst.st_ctime);
printf("modification time is %d
",fst.st_mtime);
Time = localtime(&fst.st_atime);

printf("day : %d
  ",Time->tm_mday);
printf("month: %d
 ",Time ->tm_mon);
printf("year : %d
 ",Time->tm_year);
printf("hour : %d
 ",Time->tm_hour);
printf("min : %d
 ",Time ->tm_min);
}

Permissions
While the stat calls can be used to obtain the permission values for a given file, two other system calls set those values:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int chmod (const char *path, mode_t mode);
int fchmod (int fd, mode_t mode);
Example chmod

int ret;
/*
* Set 'map.png' in the current directory to
* owner-readable and -writable. This is the
* same as 'chmod 600 ./map.png'.
*/
ret = chmod ("./map.png", S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
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if (ret)
perror ("chmod");

Ownership
In the stat structure, the st_uid and st_gid fields provide the file's owner and group, respectively. Three system calls allow a user to change those two values:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int chown (const char *path, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
int lchown (const char *path, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
int fchown (int fd, uid_t owner, gid_t group);

struct group *gr;
int ret;
/*
* getgrnam() returns information on a group
* given its name.
*/
gr = getgrnam ("officers");
if (!gr) {
/* likely an invalid group */
perror ("getgrnam");
return 1;
}
/* set manifest.txt's group to 'officers' */
ret = chown("manifest.txt", -1, gr->gr_gid);
if (ret)
perror ("chown");

Reading a Directory's Contents
A directory is represented by DIR object

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
DIR * opendir (const char *name);
To obtain the file descriptor behind a given directory stream:
#define _BSD_SOURCE /* or _SVID_SOURCE */
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
int dirfd (DIR *dir);

Reading from a directory stream
Once you have created a directory stream with opendir() , your program can begin reading entries from the directory. To do this, use readdir() , which returns entries one by one from a given DIR object:

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
struct dirent * readdir (DIR *dir);

A successful call to readdir() returns the next entry in the directory represented by dir . The dirent structure represents a directory entry. Defined in <dirent.h> , on
Linux, its definition is:
Applications successively invoke readdir() , obtaining each file in the directory, until they find the file they are searching for or until the entire directory is read, at which time readdir() returns NULL .

struct dirent {
ino_t d_ino; /* inode number */
off_t d_off; /* offset to the next dirent */
unsigned short d_reclen; /* length of this record */
unsigned char d_type; /* type of file */
char d_name[256]; /* filename */
};

To close the DIR*
int closedir (DIR *dir);

/*
* find_file_in_dir - searches the directory 'path' for a
* file named 'file'.
*
* Returns 0 if 'file' exists in 'path' and a nonzero
* value otherwise.
*/
int find_file_in_dir (const char *path, const char *file)
{
 struct dirent *entry;
 int ret = 1;
 DIR *dir;
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 dir = opendir (path);
 errno = 0;
 while ((entry = readdir (dir)) != NULL) {
  if (strcmp(entry->d_name, file) == 0) {
  ret = 0;
  break;
  }
 }
if (errno && !entry)
 perror ("readdir");

closedir (dir);
return ret;
}

System calls for reading directory contents
The previously discussed functions for reading the contents of directories are standar- dized by POSIX and provided by the C library. Internally, these functions use one of two system calls, readdir() and getdents() , which are provided here for completeness:

#include <unistd.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/dirent.h>

#include <errno.h>
/*
* Not defined for user space: need to
* use the _syscall3() macro to access.
*/
int readdir (unsigned int fd,
struct dirent *dirp,
unsigned int count);
int getdents (unsigned int fd,
struct dirent *dirp,
unsigned int count);

Links
A link is essentially just a name in a list (a directory) that points at an inode-there would appear to be no reason why multiple links to the same inode could not exist. That is, a single inode (and thus a single file) could be referenced from, say, both /etc/customs and /var/run/ledger.

Hard Link
Files can have 0, 1, or many links. Most files have a link count of 1-that is, they are pointed at by a single directory entry-but some files have 2 or even more links. These are called hard link.

The link() system call, one of the original Unix system calls, and now standardized by POSIX, creates a new link for an existing file:

#include <unistd.h>
int link (const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

int ret;
/*
* create a new directory entry,
* '/home/kidd/privateer', that points at
* the same inode as '/home/kidd/pirate'
*/
ret = link ("/home/kidd/privateer", /home/kidd/pirate");
if (ret)
perror ("link");

Symbolic Links
Symbolic links, also known as symlinks or soft links, are similar to hard links in that both point at files in the filesystem. The symbolic link differs, however, in that it is not merely an additional directory entry, but a special type of file altogether. This special file contains the pathname for a different file, called the symbolic link's target. At runtime, on the fly, the kernel substitutes this pathname for the symbolic link's pathname (unless using the various l versions of system calls, such as lstat() , which operate on the link itself, and not the target).
Soft links, unlike hard links, can span filesystems also called dangling softlink.

#include <unistd.h>
int symlink (const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

int ret;
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/*
* create a symbolic link,
* '/home/kidd/privateer', that
* points at '/home/kidd/pirate'
*/
ret = symlink ("/home/kidd/privateer", "/home/kidd/pirate");
if (ret)
perror ("symlink");

Unlinking
The converse to linking is unlinking, the removal of pathnames from the filesystem. A single system call, unlink(), handles this task:

#include <unistd.h>
int unlink (const char *pathname);

Day 3 Morning
  6. The File System

VFS, Virtual File Systems

- The Linux kernel implements the concept of Virtual File System (VFS, originally Virtual Filesystem Switch), so that it is (to a large degree) possible to separate actual "low-level" filesystem code from the rest of the kernel.
- The VFS is more of an Interface rather than an actual complete file system.
- An important role of the VFS is to perform what is called "Standard Actions". For example, the function lseek() is not actually implemented by any file system, as the function of lseek() is provided by a "standard action" of VFS.
- Two important native filesystems in the Linux environment are ext2 and the proc file system.


Four main objects in VFS API: superblock, dentries, inodes, files
- The kernel keeps track of files using in-core inodes ("index nodes"), usually derived by the low-level filesystem from on-disk inodes.
 - A file may have several names, and there is a layer of dentries ("directory entries") that represent pathnames, speeding up the lookup operation.
 - Several processes may have the same file open for reading or writing, and file structures contain the required information such as the current file position.
 - Access to a filesystem starts by mounting it. This operation takes a filesystem type (like ext2, vfat, iso9660, nfs) and a device and produces the in-core superblock that contains the information required for operations on the filesystem; a third ingredient, the mount point, specifies what pathname refers to the root of the filesystem.

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Auxiliary objects
 We have filesystem types, used to connect the name of the filesystem to the routines for setting it up (at mount time) or tearing it down (at umount time).
 - A struct vfsmount represents a subtree in the big file hierarchy - basically a pair (device, mountpoint).
 - A struct nameidata represents the result of a lookup.
 - A struct address_space gives the mapping between the blocks in a file and blocks on disk. It is needed for I/O.

Filesystem type registration
The struct is of type struct file_system_type . Here the 2.2.17 version:
struct file_system_type {
const char *name;
int fs_flags;
struct super_block *(*read_super) (struct super_block *, void *, int);
struct file_system_type *next;
};

The call register_filesystem() hangs this struct in the chain with head file_systems , and unregister_filesystem() removes it again.
Accesses to this chain are protected by the spinlock file_systems_lock . There are no other writers. The main reader is of course the mount() system call (via get_fs_type() ). Other readers are get_filesystem_list() used for /proc/filesystems , andthe sysfs system call.
The code is in fs/filesystems.c .

static struct file_system_type tue_fs_type = {
.owner= THIS_MODULE,
.name= "tue",
.get_sb= tue_get_sb,
.kill_sb= kill_block_super,
.fs_flags= FS_REQUIRES_DEV,
}

static int __init init_tue_fs(void) {
return register_filesystem(&tue_fs_type);
}
static void __exit exit_tue_fs(void)
{
unregister_filesystem(&tue_fs_type);
}

Struct file_system_type
struct file_system_type {
const char *name;
int fs_flags;
struct super_block *(*get_sb)(struct file_system_type *,
int, char *, void *, struct vfsmount *);
void (*kill_sb) (struct super_block *);
struct module *owner;
struct file_system_type *next;
struct list_head fs_supers;
struct lock_class_key s_lock_key;
struct lock_class_key s_umount_key;
};

(In 2.4 there was no kill_sb() , and the role of get_sb() was taken by read_super() . The final parameter of get_sb() and the lock_class_key fields are present since 2.6.18.)

name
Here the filesystem type gives its name ("tue"), so that the kernel can find it when someone does mount -t tue /dev/foo /dir

get_sb
At mount time the kernel calls the fstype->get_sb() routine that initializes things and sets up a superblock. Typically this is a 1-line routine that calls one of get_sb_bdev , get_sb_single , get_sb_nodev , get_sb_pseudo

kill_sb
At umount time the kernel calls the fstype->kill_sb() routine to clean up.  Typically one of kill_block_super , kill_anon_super , kill_litter_super .

Example of the use of owner - sysfs
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There exists a strange SYSV system call sysfs that will return (i) a sequence number given a filesystem type, and (ii) a filesystem type given a sequence number, and (iii) the total number of filesystem types registered now. This call is not supported by libc or glibc.
These sequence numbers are rather meaningless since they may change any moment. But this means that one can get a snapshot of the list of filesystem types without looking at /proc/filesystems . For example, the program

#include <stdio.h>
#include <linux/unistd.h>
/* define the 3-arg version of sysfs() */
static _syscall3(int,sysfs,int,option,unsigned int,fsindex,char *,buf);
/* define the 1-arg version of sysfs() */
static int sysfs1(int i) {
return sysfs(i,0,NULL);
}

main(){
int i, tot;
char buf[100];
/* how long is a filesystem type name?? */
tot = sysfs1(3);
if (tot == -1) {
perror("sysfs(3)");

exit(1);
for (i=0; i<tot; i++) {
if (sysfs(2, i, buf)) {
perror("sysfs(2)");
exit(1);
}
printf("%2d: %s
", i, buf);
}
Return 0;

might give output like
0:ext2
1:minix
2:romfs
3:msdos
4:vfat
5:proc
6:nfs
7:smbfs
8:iso9660

Mounting
The mount system call attaches a filesystem to the big file hierarchy at some indicated point. Ingredients needed: (i) a device that carries the filesystem (disk, partition, floppy, CDROM, SmartMedia card, ...), (ii) a directory where the filesystem on that device must be attached, (iii) a filesystem type. The code for sys_mount() is found in fs/namespace.c and fs/super.c . The connection with the filesystem type name is made in do_kern_mount() :
struct file_system_type *type = get_fs_type(fstype);
struct super_block *sb;
if (!type)
return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV);
sb = type->get_sb(type, flags, name, data);
and this is the only call of the get_sb() routine.

The code for sys_umount() is found in fs/namespace.c and fs/super.c . The counterpart of the just quoted code is the cleanup in deactivate_super() :
fs->kill_sb(s);
and this is the only call of the kill_sb() routine.

The superblock
The superblock gives global information on a filesystem: the device on which it lives, its block size, its type, the dentry of the root of the filesystem, the methods it has, etc., etc.
struct super_block {
dev_t s_dev;
unsigned long s_blocksize;
struct file_system_type *s_type;
struct super_operations *s_op;
struct dentry *s_root;
...
}
struct super_operations {
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struct inode *(*alloc_inode)(struct super_block *sb);
void (*destroy_inode)(struct inode *);
void (*read_inode) (struct inode *);
void (*dirty_inode) (struct inode *);
void (*write_inode) (struct inode *, int);
void (*put_inode) (struct inode *);
void (*drop_inode) (struct inode *);
void (*delete_inode) (struct inode *);
void (*put_super) (struct super_block *);
void (*write_super) (struct super_block *);
int (*sync_fs)(struct super_block *sb, int wait);
void (*write_super_lockfs) (struct super_block *);
void (*unlockfs) (struct super_block *);
int (*statfs) (struct super_block *, struct statfs *);
int (*remount_fs) (struct super_block *, int *, char *);
void (*clear_inode) (struct inode *);
void (*umount_begin) (struct super_block *);
int (*show_options)(struct seq_file *, struct vfsmount *);
};
This is enough to get started: the dentry of the root directory tells us the inode of this root directory (and in particular its i_ino ), and sb->s_op->read_inode(inode) will read this inode from disk. Now inode->i_op->lookup() allows us to find names in the root directory, etc.
Each superblock is on six lists, with links through the fields s_list , s_dirty , s_io , s_anon , s_files , s_instances , respectively.

The super_blocks list
All superblocks are collected in a list super_blocks with links in the fields s_list . This list is protected by the spinlock sb_lock . The main use is in super.c:get_super() or user_get_super() to find the superblock for a given block device. (Bothroutines are identical, except that one takes a bdev , the other a dev_t .) This list is also used various places where all superblocks must be sync'ed or all dirty inodes must be written out.

<b.The fs_supers list
All superblocks of a given type are collected in a list headed by the fs_supers field of the struct filesystem_type, with links in the fields s_instances . Also this list is protected by the spinlock sb_lock .

The file list
All open files belonging to a given superblock are chained in a list headed by the s_files field of the superblock, with links in the fields f_list of the files. These lists are protected by the spinlock files_lock . This list is used for example in fs_may_remount_ro() to check that there are no files currently open for writing.

The list of anonymous dentries
Normally, all dentries are connected to root. However, when NFS filehandles are used this need not be the case. Dentries that are roots of subtrees potentially unconnected to root are chained in a list headed by the s_anon field
of the superblock, with links in the fields d_hash . These lists are protected by the spinlock dcache_lock . They are grown in dcache.c:d_alloc_anon() and shrunk in super.c:generic_shutdown_super() .

The inode lists s_dirty, s_io
Lists of inodes to be written out. These lists are headed at the s_dirty (resp. s_io ) field of the superblock, with links in the fields i_list . These lists are protected by the spinlock inode_lock . See fs/fs-writeback.c .


Inodes
An (in-core) inode contains the metadata of a file: its serial number, its protection (mode), its owner, its size, the dates of last access, creation and last modification, etc. It also points to the superblock of the filesystem the file is in, the methods for this file, and the dentries (names) for this file.
struct inode {
unsigned long i_ino;
umode_t i_mode;
uid_t i_uid;
gid_t i_gid;
kdev_t i_rdev;
loff_t i_size;
struct timespec i_atime;
struct timespec i_ctime;
struct timespec i_mtime;
struct super_block *i_sb;

struct inode_operations *i_op;
struct address_space *i_mapping;
struct list_head i_dentry;
...
}

struct inode_operations {
int (*create) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, int);
struct dentry * (*lookup) (struct inode *, struct dentry *);
int (*link) (struct dentry *, struct inode *, struct dentry *);
int (*unlink) (struct inode *, struct dentry *);
int (*symlink) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, const char *);};
int (*mkdir) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, int);
int (*rmdir) (struct inode *, struct dentry *);
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int (*mknod) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, int, dev_t);
int (*rename) (struct inode *, struct dentry *, struct inode *, struct dentry *);
int (*readlink) (struct dentry *, char *,int);
int (*follow_link) (struct dentry *, struct nameidata *);
void (*truncate) (struct inode *);
int (*permission) (struct inode *, int);
int (*setattr) (struct dentry *, struct iattr *);
int (*getattr) (struct vfsmount *mnt, struct dentry *, struct kstat *);
int (*setxattr) (struct dentry *, const char *, const void *, size_t, int);
ssize_t (*getxattr) (struct dentry *, const char *, void *, size_t);
ssize_t (*listxattr) (struct dentry *, char *, size_t);
int (*removexattr) (struct dentry *, const char *);

Each inode is on four lists, with links through the fields i_hash , i_list , i_dentry , i_devices .

Dentries
The dentries encode the filesystem tree structure, the names of the files. Thus, the main parts of a dentry are the inode (if any) that belongs to it, the name (the final part of the pathname), and the parent (the name of the containing directory). There are also the superblocks, the methods, a list of subdirectories, etc.
struct dentry {
struct inode *d_inode;
struct dentry *d_parent;
struct qstr d_name;
struct super_block *d_sb;
struct dentry_operations *d_op;
struct list_head d_subdirs;
...
}
struct dentry_operations {
int (*d_revalidate)(struct dentry *, int);
int (*d_hash) (struct dentry *, struct qstr *);
int (*d_compare) (struct dentry *, struct qstr *, struct qstr *);
int (*d_delete)(struct dentry *);
void (*d_release)(struct dentry *);
void (*d_iput)(struct dentry *, struct inode *);
};


Each dentry is on five lists, with links through the fields d_hash , d_lru , d_child , d_subdirs , d_alias .

Files
File structures represent open files, that is, an inode together with a current (reading/writing) offset. The offset can be set by the lseek() system call. Note that instead of a pointer to the inode we have a pointer to the dentry -that means that the name used to open a file is known. In particular system calls like getcwd() are possible.
struct file {
struct dentry *f_dentry;
struct vfsmount *f_vfsmnt;
struct file_operations *f_op;
mode_t f_mode;
loff_t f_pos;
struct fown_struct f_owner;
unsigned int f_uid, f_gid;
unsigned long f_version;
...
}
Here the f_owner field gives the owner to use for async I/O signals.

struct file_operations {
struct module *owner;
loff_t (*llseek) (struct file *, loff_t, int);
ssize_t (*read) (struct file *, char *, size_t, loff_t *);
ssize_t (*aio_read) (struct kiocb *, char *, size_t, loff_t);
ssize_t (*write) (struct file *, const char *, size_t, loff_t *);
ssize_t (*aio_write) (struct kiocb *, const char *, size_t, loff_t);
int (*readdir) (struct file *, void *, filldir_t);
unsigned int (*poll) (struct file *, struct poll_table_struct *);
int (*ioctl) (struct inode *, struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
int (*mmap) (struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);
int (*open) (struct inode *, struct file *);
int (*flush) (struct file *);
int (*release) (struct inode *, struct file *);
int (*fsync) (struct file *, struct dentry *, int datasync);
int (*aio_fsync) (struct kiocb *, int datasync);
int (*fasync) (int, struct file *, int);
int (*lock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);
ssize_t (*readv) (struct file *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t *);
ssize_t (*writev) (struct file *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t *);
ssize_t (*sendfile) (struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, read_actor_t, void *);
ssize_t (*sendpage) (struct file *, struct page *, int, size_t, loff_t *, int);
unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area)(struct file *, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long);

Each file is in two lists, with links through the fields f_list , f_ep_links .

f_list
The list with links through f_list was discussed above. It is the list of all files belonging to a given superblock. There is a second use: the tty driver collects all files that are opened instances of a tty in a list headed by tty->tty_files with links through the file field f_list . Conversely, these files point back at the tty via their field private_data .
(This field private_data is also used elsewhere. For example, the proc code uses it to attach a struct seq_file to a file.)

The event poll list
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All event poll items belonging to a given file are collected in a list with head f_ep_links , protected by the file field
f_ep_lock . (For event poll stuff, see epoll_ctl(2).)


struct vfsmount
A struct vfsmount describes a mount. The definition lives in mount.h :
struct vfsmount {
struct list_head mnt_hash;
struct vfsmount *mnt_parent; /* fs we are mounted on */
struct dentry *mnt_mountpoint; /* dentry of mountpoint */
struct dentry *mnt_root;
/* root of the mounted tree */
struct super_block *mnt_sb;
/* pointer to superblock */
struct list_head mnt_mounts; /* list of children, anchored here */
struct list_head mnt_child;
/* and going through their mnt_child */
atomic_t mnt_count;
int mnt_flags;
char *mnt_devname;
/* Name of device e.g. /dev/dsk/hda1 */
struct list_head mnt_list;
};

fs_struct
A struct fs_struct determines the interpretation of pathnames referred to by a process (and also, somewhat illogically, contains the umask). The typical reference is current->fs . The definition

lives in fs_struct.h :
struct fs_struct {
atomic_t count;
rwlock_t lock;
int umask;
struct dentry * root, * pwd, * altroot;
struct vfsmount * rootmnt, * pwdmnt, * altrootmnt;
};

Semantics of root and pwd are clear. Remains to discuss altroot .

Day 3 Morning
  6. The File System

There are two normal cases for handling the descriptors after a fork.
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1. The parent waits for the child to complete. In this case, the parent does not need to do anything with its descriptors. When the child terminates, any of the shared descriptors that the child read from or wrote to will have their file offsets updated accordingly.
2. Both the parent and the child go their own ways. Here, after the fork, the parent closes the descriptors that it doesn't need, and the child does the same thing. This way, neither interferes with the other's open descriptors. This scenario is often found with network servers.

Besides the open files, numerous other properties of the parent are inherited by the child:
*  Real user ID, real group ID, effective user ID, and effective group ID
*  Supplementary group IDs
*  Process group ID
*  Session ID
*  Controlling terminal
*  The set-user-ID and set-group-ID flags
*  Current working directory
*  Root directory
*  File mode creation mask
*  Signal mask and dispositions
*  The close-on-exec flag for any open file descriptors
*  Environment
*  Attached shared memory segments
*  Memory mappings
*  Resource limits
The differences between the parent and child are
* The return values from fork are different.
* The process IDs are different.
* The two processes have different parent process IDs: the parent process ID of the
    child is the parent; the parent process ID of the parent doesn't change.
* The child's tms_utime, tms_stime, tms_cutime, and tms_cstime values are set to 0
* File locks set by the parent are not inherited by the child.
* Pending alarms are cleared for the child.
* The set of pending signals for the child is set to the empty set.

Day 3 Morning
  6. The File System

/proc is a window into the running Linux kernel. Files in the /proc file system don't corre-spond to actual files on a physical device. Instead, they are magic objects that behave like files but provide access to parameters, data structures, and statistics in the kernel. The "contents" of these files are not always fixed blocks of data, as ordinary file contents are. Instead, they are generated on the fly by the Linux kernel when you read
from the file.You can also change the configuration of the running kernel by writing to certain files in the /proc file system.
Let's look at an example:
    % ls -l /proc/version
    -r--r--r--      1 root     root            0 Jan 17 18:09 /proc/version
Size is 0 as this generated by kernel

$mount
none on /proc type proc (rw)

none reveals that is not a file systemon disk.

Extracting Information from /proc
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
/* Returns the clock speed of the system's CPU in MHz, as reported by
   /proc/cpuinfo. On a multiprocessor machine, returns the speed of
   the first CPU. On error returns zero. */
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float get_cpu_clock_speed ()
{
  FILE* fp;
  char buffer[1024];
  size_t bytes_read;
  char* match;
  float clock_speed;
  /* Read the entire contents of /proc/cpuinfo into the buffer. */
  fp = fopen ("/proc/cpuinfo", "r");
  bytes_read = fread (buffer, 1, sizeof (buffer), fp);
  fclose (fp);
  /* Bail if read failed or if buffer isn't big enough. */
  if (bytes_read == 0 || bytes_read == sizeof (buffer))
    return 0;
  /* NUL-terminate the text. */
  buffer[bytes_read] = '\0';
  /* Locate the line that starts with "cpu MHz". */

  match = strstr (buffer, "cpu MHz");
  if (match == NULL)
    return 0;
  /* Parse the line to extract the clock speed. */
  sscanf (match, "cpu MHz : %f", &clock_speed);
  return clock_speed;
}
int main ()
{
  printf ("CPU clock speed: %4.0f MHz
", get_cpu_clock_speed ());
  return 0;
}

Various directories and files in /proc
1)/proc/<number>  # for processes running
2)/proc/self    #for current process
3)/proc/cpuinfo
4)/proc/devices
5)/proc/pci #summary of devices connected to pci bus
6)/proc/tty/driver/serail #serial ports
7)/proc/sys/kernel #kernel information
8)/proc/meminfo #system's memory usage
9)/proc/filesystem #filesystems mounted in kernel
10) /proc/mount #all mounted filesytems

Day 3 Morning
  6. The File System

1. fcntl Record Locking

#include <fcntl.h>
int fcntl(int fd, int cmd);
int fcntl(int fd, int cmd, long arg);
int fcntl(int fd, int cmd, struct flock *lock);
    Returns: depends on cmd if OK (see following), -1 on error

For record locking cmd is F_GETLK, 
F_SETLK or F_SETLKW
struct flock { short l_type; /* F_RDLCK, F_WRLCK, or F_UNLCK */ short l_whence; /* SEEK_SET, SEEK_CUR, or SEEK_END */ off_t l_start; /* offset in bytes, relative to l_whence */ off_t l_len; /* length, in bytes; 0 means lock to EOF */ pid_t l_pid; /* returned with F_GETLK */ }; # include <stdio.h> # include<fcntl.h> Main() { int fd, pid, retval; struct flock lockc, lockp; fd = open("testlock",O_WRONLY); lockp.l_type = F_WRLCK; lockp.l_whence = 0; lockp.l_start = 10; lockp.l_len = 15; if((retval = fcntl(fd, F_SETLK,&lockp)) == -1) // Parent is locking the file perror("parent write lock "); printf("retval is %d ",retval); if((pid = fork()) == 0){ lockc.l_type = F_WRLCK; lockc.l_whence = 0; lockc.l_start = 40; lockc.l_len = 55; //Child is locking the file if((retval = fcntl(fd, F_SETLK,&lockc)) == -1)perror("Child write lock "); printf("retval is %d ",retval); printf("Child Process over "); } else { sleep(3); lockp.l_type = F_UNLCK; lockp.l_whence = 0; lockp.l_start = 10; lockp.l_len = 15; // Parent is unlocking the file if((retval = fcntl(fd, F_SETLK,&lockp)) == -1)perror("parent write lock "); printf("Parent Process over "); } }
Both are trying to make READ LOCK,
Successfull can try at WRITE LOCK
# include <stdio.h> # include<fcntl.h> main() { int fd, pid, retval; struct flock lockc, lockp; fd = open("testlock",O_RDONLY); lockp.l_type = F_RDLCK; lockp.l_whence = 0; //SEEK_SET lockp.l_start = 10; lockp.l_len = 15; if((retval = fcntl(fd, F_SETLK,&lockp)) == -1) // Parent is locking the file perror("parent read lock "); printf("Parent retval is %d ",retval); //Child starts here if((pid = fork()) == 0){ if((retval = fcntl(fd, F_GETLK,&lockc)) == -1) perror("child write lock "); printf("retval is %d ",retval); printf("process %d has locked this section ",lockc.l_pid); printf("lock type %d ",lockc.l_type); printf("whence %d ",lockc.l_whence); printf("start %d ",lockc.l_start); printf("lenth is %d ",lockc.l_len); lockc.l_type = F_RDLCK; lockc.l_whence = 0; lockc.l_start = 10; lockc.l_len = 15; //Child is locking the file if((retval = fcntl(fd, F_SETLK,&lockc)) == -1) perror("Child read lock "); printf("Child retval is %d ",retval); printf("Child Process over "); } else { sleep(3);
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printf("Parent Process over
");
}
}

2. lockf

SYNOPSIS
#include <unistd.h>
int lockf(int fd, int cmd, off_t len);
- apply, test or remove a POSIX lock on an open file

DEADLOCK,  avoid deadlock with F_TLOCK in child lockf() call

# include <fcntl.h>
# include <unistd.h>
main()
{
int fd, retvelue;
pid_t pid;

char   buff[100];

if((fd = open("locktest",O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0666)) == -1)
 perror("open file locktest
");

if(lockf(fd,F_LOCK,10) == -1)
 perror("lockf failed");

if((pid = fork()) == 0){
 if(lockf(fd,F_LOCK,10) == -1)	//child blocked dead lock....!
  perror("lockf failed");
  puts("The child process over");
 }
 else{
  wait(0);
  printf("Process %d is over
",getpid());
}
}

3. access
#include <unistd.h>
int access(const char *pathname, int mode);

access() checks whether the process would be allowed to read, write or test for existence of the file (or other file system object) whose name is pathname.  If pathname  is  a  symbolic link permissions of the file referred to by this symbolic link are tested.
mode is a mask consisting of one or more of R_OK, W_OK, X_OK and F_OK.
R_OK, W_OK and X_OK request checking whether the file exists and has read, write and execute permissions, respectively.  F_OK just requests checking for the existence of the file.
#include<errno.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<unistd.h>
int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
char* path = argv[1];
int ret;
ret = access(path,F_OK); // check for file exists
if(ret == 0)
printf(" %s file exists
",path);
}

4. create
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

int open(const char *pathname, int flags);
int open(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode);
int creat(const char *pathname, mode_t mode);


5. dup, dup2
#include <unistd.h>

int dup(int oldfd);
int dup2(int oldfd, int newfd);

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dup() and dup2() create a copy of the file descriptor oldfd.

After a successful return from dup() or dup2(), the old and new file descriptors may be used interchangeably. They refer to the same open file descriptor thus share file offset and file status flags; for example, if the file offset is modified by using
lseek(2) on one of the descriptors, the offset is also changed for the other.

The two descriptors do not share file descriptor flags (the close-on-exec flag).  The close- on-exec flag (FD_CLOEXEC;

dup() uses the lowest-numbered unused descriptor for the new descriptor.

dup2() makes newfd be the copy of oldfd, closing newfd first if necessary.

# include <stdio.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
# include <fcntl.h>
# include <sys/stat.h>
main(){
int fd, newfd;
if((fd = creat("testfile",0666)) == -1){
 perror("Creat failed
");
 exit(0);
}
printf("Descriptor is %d",fd);
newfd= dup2(fd,5);//try with stdout
printf("
New Descriptor is %d
",newfd);
printf("The PID is %d
",getpid());
for(;;);
close(fd);
close(newfd);
}

Using fcntl to create a copy
# include <stdio.h>
# include <fcntl.h>
main()
{
int fd,fd1, newfd;
fd = open("temp",O_RDWR | O_CREAT ,0666);
printf("The file discriptor is %d
",fd);

fd1 = open("temp1",O_RDWR | O_CREAT ,0666);
newfd=fcntl(fd,F_DUPFD,NULL);
printf("The file discriptor is %d
",newfd);
				
}

6. mmap
#include <sys/mman.h>

void *mmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
int munmap(void *start, size_t length);

The mmap() function asks to map length bytes starting at offset offset from the file (or  other object) specified by the file descriptor fd into memory, preferably at address start.
This latter address is a hint only, and is usually specified as 0. The actual place where the object is mapped is returned by mmap().

The prot argument describes the desired memory protection (and must not conflict with the open mode of the file).It is either PROT_NONE or is the bitwise OR of one or more of the  other PROT_* flags.
PROT_EXEC  Pages may be executed.
PROT_READ  Pages may be read.
PROT_WRITE Pages may be written.
PROT_NONE  Pages may not be accessed.

The flags parameter specifies the type of the mapped object,  mapping  options  and  whether modifications  made  to  the mapped copy of the page are private to the process or are to be shared with other references.  It has bits
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MAP_FIXED
Do not select a different address than the one specified. If the memory region specified by start.
MAP_SHARED
Share this mapping with all other processes that map this object. Storing to the region is equivalent to writing to the file.
MAP_PRIVATE
Create a private copy-on-write mapping. Stores to the region do not affect the original file. It is unspecified whether changes made to the file after the mmap() call are visible in the mapped region.

#include<unistd.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<sys/mman.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/stat.h>
#include<fcntl.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<syscall.h>

main(int argc,char *argv[])
{
int fd;
void *addr;

if( (fd=open(argv[1],O_RDWR|O_CREAT,0777)) < 0) {
 perror("open");
 exit(1);
}

lseek(fd,5,SEEK_SET);
write(fd,"",1);
//lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET);
addr=mmap(0,5,PROT_WRITE,MAP_SHARED,fd,0); /* Mapping the file to memory*/
close(fd);
sprintf(addr,"%s
","hello");
munmap(addr,5);
}
//#define BCM2708_PERI_BASE  0x20000000
#define BCM2708_PERI_BASE    0x3F000000
#define GPIO_BASE  (BCM2708_PERI_BASE + 0x200000) /* GPIO controller */


#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#define PAGE_SIZE (4*1024)
#define BLOCK_SIZE (4*1024)

int  mem_fd;
void *gpio_map;

// I/O access
volatile unsigned *gpio;


// GPIO setup macros. Always use INP_GPIO(x) before using OUT_GPIO(x) or SET_GPIO_ALT(x,y)
#define INP_GPIO(g) *(gpio+((g)/10)) &= ~(7<<(((g)%10)*3))
#define OUT_GPIO(g) *(gpio+((g)/10)) |=  (1<<(((g)%10)*3))
#define SET_GPIO_ALT(g,a) *(gpio+(((g)/10))) |= (((a)<=3?(a)+4:(a)==4?3:2)<<(((g)%10)*3))

//#define GPIO_SET *(gpio+7)  // sets   bits which are 1 ignores bits which are 0
//#define GPIO_CLR *(gpio+10) // clears bits which are 1 ignores bits which are 0
//temporarily introduced for pint 4
#define GPIO_SET *(volatile unsigned int*)(gpio+7) |= 0x10  // sets   bits which are 1 ignores bits which are 0
#define GPIO_CLR *(volatile unsigned int*)(gpio+10)|= 0x10 // clears bits which are 1 ignores bits which are 0
#define GPIO_READ(g) *(gpio + 13) &= (1<<(g))

void setup_io();

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int g,rep;

// Set up gpi pointer for direct register access
setup_io();
// set GPIO pin 7 as output
//    INP_GPIO(7); // must use INP_GPIO before we can use OUT_GPIO
    INP_GPIO(4); // must use INP_GPIO before we can use OUT_GPIO
//    OUT_GPIO(7);
    OUT_GPIO(4);

// flash LED on and off 10 times
 for (rep = 0; rep < 10; rep++) {
//        GPIO_SET = (1 << 7);
        printf("setting
");
        GPIO_SET;
        sleep(1);
//        GPIO_CLR = (1 << 7);

        printf("resetting
");
        GPIO_CLR;
        sleep(1);
 }
  return 0;
} // main
// Set up a memory regions to access GPIO
void setup_io()
{
/* open /dev/mem */
if ((mem_fd = open("/dev/mem", O_RDWR|O_SYNC) ) < 0) {
 printf("can't open /dev/mem
");
 exit(-1);
}
/* mmap GPIO */
gpio_map = mmap(
 NULL,                 //Any adddress in our space will do
 BLOCK_SIZE,           //Map length
 PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, // Enable reading & writting to mapped memory
 MAP_SHARED,           //Shared with other processes
 mem_fd,               //File to map
 GPIO_BASE             //Offset to GPIO peripheral
 );
 close(mem_fd); //No need to keep mem_fd open after mmap
 if (gpio_map == MAP_FAILED) {
  printf("mmap error %d
", (int)gpio_map); //errno also set!
  exit(-1);
 }
 // Always use volatile pointer!
 gpio = (volatile unsigned *)gpio_map;
} // setup_io()

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7. mount
mount [-lhV]

mount -a [-fFnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-O optlist]
mount [-fnrsvw] [-o options [,...]] device | dir
mount [-fnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-o options] device dir

Mount a file system

All files accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread out over several devices. The mount command serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Conversely, the umount(8) command will detach it again.

The standard form of the mount command, is mount -t type device dir
#include<sys/mount.h>
#include<stdio.h>
main(){
int fd;
fd = mount("/dev/fd0","/mnt/floppy","ext2",MS_NOSUID,NULL);
if(fd != -1)
printf(" Floppy mounted successfully
");
printf(" Changing Directory to floppy
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");
chdir("/mnt/floppy");
printf(" Creating a file test_file in floppy
");
fd = creat("test_file",0644);
if (fd != -1)
printf(" File Creation successful
");
}

8. readv, writev
#include <sys/uio.h>

ssize_t readv(int fd, const struct iovec *vector, int count);
ssize_t writev(int fd, const struct iovec *vector, int count);
readv, writev - read or write data into multiple buffers

The readv() function reads count blocks from the file associated with the file descriptor fd into the multiple buffers described by vector.

The writev() function writes at most count blocks described by vector to the file associated with the file descriptor fd.

The pointer vector points to a struct iovec defined in <sys/uio.h> as

struct iovec {
 void *iov_base;   /* Starting address */
 size_t iov_len;   /* Number of bytes */
};

# include<stdio.h>
# include <fcntl.h>
# include <sys/uio.h>

struct emp{
char name[25];
int age;
float  sal;
}obj[2], Emp [2]={{"Hello",10,123.345},{"World",20,234.567}};

main()
{
struct iovec  readiovobj,ioobj;
int fd;
int retval;
ioobj.iov_base = Emp;
ioobj.iov_len =sizeof(Emp);

printf("%d",ioobj.iov_len );

fd = open("temp",O_CREAT|O_RDWR,0666);
retval=writev(fd,&ioobj,1);
printf("%d",retval);

lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET);
readiovobj.iov_base = obj;
readiovobj.iov_len =sizeof(Emp);
retval=readv(fd,&readiovobj,1);
printf("%d",retval);
}

9. pread, pwrite 
#define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500

#include <unistd.h>

ssize_t pread(int fd, void *buf, size_t count, off_t offset);

ssize_t pwrite(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count, off_t offset);
 pread, pwrite - read from or write to a file descriptor at a given offset

pread() reads up to count bytes from file descriptor fd at offset offset (from the start of the file) into the buffer starting at buf. The file offset is not changed.
pwrite() writes up to count bytes from the buffer starting at buf to the file descriptor  fd at offset offset.  The file offset is not changed.
The file referenced by fd must be capable of seeking.

#include<stdio.h>
#include<sys/stat.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<fcntl.h>
#include<unistd.h>

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main()
{
int fd1, fd2,n;
char ch[1024];
if((fd1 = open("/etc/passwd",O_RDONLY)) == -1)
 perror("Un able to open source");

n = pread(fd1,ch,100,100);
printf(ch);
close(fd1);

if((fd2 = open("newfile",O_WRONLY,0666)) == -1){
 perror("Un able to open target");
 exit(1);
}
pwrite(fd2,"XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX",40,500);
 pwrite(fd2,"YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY",40,500);

close(fd2);
}
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p53
 
Day 3 Morning
  7. Process Management

- A Process is a file in file system.
- A Process is  object code in execution-active, alive, running programs
- Processes are more than just assembly language; they consist of data, resources, state,
and a virtualized computer.
- A process uses many resources like memory space, CPU, files, etc., during its lifetime.
- A Process contains threads, contained in a process group and has parent Process.
  A process group contained in Session. Session has tty, terminal attached to it where at most one process group (Foreground process group) attached to the terminal.
 Rest detached process groups are background process group.

 - A Process is sub program that is scheduled, by kernel, to the process for execution.
 Main thread in a process is actual entity that get scheduled to the CPU. Kernel maintains separate copy of registers and various other data structure for a process.
 - In multi processing environment register values in context of process gets loaded to actual register when execution resumes.

 - A process is an entry in task vector, and is an instance of task_struct.


Day 3 Morning
  7. Process Management

Process Structure
* Every process is represented by a task_struct data structure.
* This structure is quite large and complex.
* When ever a new process is created a new task_struct structure is created by the kernel and the complete process information is maintained by the structure.
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* When a process is terminated, the corresponding structure is removed.
* Uses doubly linked list data structure.
* Solaris uses proc structure to manage processes.

task_struct task[256];

struct task_struct {
volatile long state;    /* -1 unrunnable, 0 runnable, >0 stopped */
void *stack;
atomic_t usage;
unsigned int flags;     /* per process flags, defined below */
unsigned int ptrace;

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
struct llist_node wake_entry;
int on_cpu;
struct task_struct *last_wakee;
unsigned long wakee_flips;
unsigned long wakee_flip_decay_ts;

int wake_cpu;
#endif
int on_rq;

int prio, static_prio, normal_prio;
unsigned int rt_priority;
const struct sched_class *sched_class;
struct sched_entity se;
struct sched_rt_entity rt;

#ifdef CONFIG_CGROUP_SCHED
struct task_group *sched_task_group;
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_NOTIFIERS
/* list of struct preempt_notifier: */
struct hlist_head preempt_notifiers;
#endif
/*
* fpu_counter contains the number of consecutive context switches
* that the FPU is used. If this is over a threshold, the lazy fpu
* saving becomes unlazy to save the trap. This is an unsigned char
* so that after 256 times the counter wraps and the behavior turns
* lazy again; this to deal with bursty apps that only use FPU for
* a short time
*/
unsigned char fpu_counter;
#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IO_TRACE
 unsigned int btrace_seq;
#endif
unsigned int policy;
int nr_cpus_allowed;
cpumask_t cpus_allowed;

#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
 int rcu_read_lock_nesting;
 char rcu_read_unlock_special;
 struct list_head rcu_node_entry;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU */
#ifdef CONFIG_TREE_PREEMPT_RCU
 struct rcu_node *rcu_blocked_node;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_TREE_PREEMPT_RCU */
#ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST
 struct rt_mutex *rcu_boost_mutex;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_RCU_BOOST */

#if defined(CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS) || defined(CONFIG_TASK_DELAY_ACCT)
 struct sched_info sched_info;
#endif

        struct list_head tasks;
#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
 struct plist_node pushable_tasks;
#endif

 struct mm_struct *mm, *active_mm;
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK
 unsigned brk_randomized:1;
#endif
#if defined(SPLIT_RSS_COUNTING)
 struct task_rss_stat    rss_stat;
#endif
/* task state */
int exit_state;
int exit_code, exit_signal;
int pdeath_signal;  /*  The signal sent when the parent dies  */
unsigned int jobctl;    /* JOBCTL_*, siglock protected */
..
..

In order to run unix, the computer hardware must provide two modes of execution:
- kernel mode
- user mode

Some computers have more than two execution modes.
- eg: Intel processor. It has four modes of execution.

Each process has virtual address space; references to virtual memory are translated to physical memory locations using set of address translation maps.

Day 3 Morning
  7. Process Management

Process States

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Day 3 Morning
  7. Process Management

Scheduling (Kernel perspective)
* The kernel keeps track of a processes creation time as well as the CPU time that it consumes during its lifetime.
* This clock is the combination of software and hardware setup.
* It is independent of CPU frequency.
* A clock tick unit is Jiffy. System's interactive response depends on the clock frequency.
- For example: the jiffy value may be 10ms (100Hz) or 1ms (1000Hz) depending on implementation

Each clock tick, the kernel updates the amount of time that the current process has spent in system and in user mode.
* Linux also supports process specific interval timers, processes can use system calls to set up timers to send signals to themselves when the timers expire. These timers can be single-shot or periodic timers.

Process Scheduling
* The job of a scheduler is to select the most deserving process to run out of all of the runnable processes in the run queue.
* Implement fair scheduling to avoid starvation
* Implement suitable scheduling policy
* Updates state of the processes in every clock tick (jiffy)

Policy - FIFO, Round Robin, Shortest Job First,
FILO, Priority based etc.
* Priority - higher priority process will be allowed to run.
* Pre-emptive and Non-preemptive scheduling.
* rt_priority - many UNIX variants support real time scheduling priority range.

Priority Range
Scheduling priorities (in a typical UNIX system)
have integer values
between 0 and 127, with smaller numbers
meaning higher priorities.
* For Solaris: 0 to 169
* For Linux: 0 to 139

Process Scheduling: Linux
* The Linux kernel implements two separate priority ranges.
* The first is the nice value, a number from -20 to 19 with a default of zero. Larger nice values correspond to a lower priority.
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* A process with a nice value of -20 receives the maximum time slice, whereas a process with a nice value of 19 receives the minimum time slice.
* Time slice: minimum -10ms, default -150ms and maximum
- 300ms

* The second range is the real-time priority
* By default, it ranges from zero to 99.
* All real time processes are at a higher priority than normal processes.
* Linux implements real-time priorities in accordance with POSIX.

* Linux provides two real-time scheduling policies, 
SCHED_FIFO
and
SCHED_RR
* The normal non real-time scheduling policy is
SCHED_OTHER
*
SCHED_FIFO
implements without time slices- so it can run until it blocks or explicitly yields the processor. *
SCHED_RR
is identical to
SCHED_FIFO
except that each process can only run until it exhausts a predetermined time Slice. Scheduler System Calls
 nice() Set a process's nice value
 sched_setscheduler() Set a process's scheduling policy
 sched_getscheduler() Get a process's scheduling policy
 sched_setparam() Set a process's real-time priority
 sched_getparam() Get a process's real-time priority
 sched_get_priority_max() Get the maximum real-time priority
 sched_get_priority_min() Get the minimum real-time priority
 sched_rr_get_interval() Get a process's timeslice value

Day 3 Morning
  7. Process Management


Process Creation
Parent process creates children processes, which, in turn create other
   processes, forming a tree of processes.
Resource sharing
   Parent and children share all resources.
   Children share subset of parent's resources.
   Parent and child share no resources.
Execution
   Parent and children execute concurrently.
   Parent waits until children terminate.
Address space
   Child duplicate of parent.
   Child has a program loaded into it.
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fork()
* pid_t fork (void); creates a new process.
* All statements after the fork() system call in a program are executed by two processes - the original process that used fork(), plus the new process that is created by fork( ).
main ( ) {
printf (" Hello fork %d
, fork ( ) ");
}
- Hello fork: 0
- Hello fork: x ( > 0);
- Hello fork: -1


Parent and Child
if (!fork( )) {
/* Child Code */
}
else {
/* parent code */
wait (0); /* or */
waitpid(pid, ....);
}

Zombie State and Orphan Process
* When a child process exits, it has to give the exit status to the parent process.
* If the parent process is busy or suspended then the child process will not be able to terminate.
* Such state is called Zombie.
* If parent exits before child, the child will become an orphan process and the init process (grand parent) will take care of the child process.


Copy on Write (COW)
* Instead of copying the address space of the parent, UNIX uses the COW technique for economical use of the memory page.
* The parent space is not copied, it can be shared by both the parent and the child process but the memory pages are marked as write protected.
* If parent or child wants to modify the pages, then kernel copies the parent pages to the child process.
* Advantage: Kernel can defer or prevent copying of a parent process address space.

execl
To run a new program in a process, you use one of
the "exec" family of
calls (such as "execl") and specify following:
* the pathname of the program to run
* the name of the program
* each parameter to the program
* (char *)0 or NULL as the last parameter to specify end of parameter list

exec Family
int execl (const char *path, const char *arg, .....);
int execlp (const char *file, const char *arg);
int execle (const char *path, const char *arg, ......., char *const envp[ ]);
int execv (const char *path, char *const argv[ ]);
int execvp (const char *file, char *const argv[ ]);
  All the above library functions call internally execve system call.
int execve (const char *filename, char *const argv [ ] , char *const evnp [ ]);

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Text Portion
* User Context consists portions accessible to the process while running in user mode.
* The text portion of a process contains the actual machine instructions that are executed by the hardware.
* When a program is executed by the OS, the text portion is read into memory from its disk file, unless the OS supports shared text and a copy of program is already being executed.
Data Portion
* The data portion contains the program's data. It is possible for this to be divided into 3 pieces.
* Initialized read only data contains elements that are initialized by the program and are read only while the process is executing.
* Initialized read write data contains data elements that are initialized by the program and may have their values modified during execution of the process.

Stack Portion
* Un-initialized data contains data elements that are not initialized by the program but are set to zero before execution starts .
* The heap is used while a process is running to allocate more data space dynamically to the process.
* The stack is used dynamically while the process is running to contain the stack frames that are used by many programming languages.

Kernel Context
* The stack frames contain the return address linkage for each function call and also the data elements required by a function.
* A gap is shown between heap and stack to indicate that many OS leave some room between these 2 portions, so
that both can grow dynamically.
* The kernel context of a process is maintained and accessible only to the kernel. This area contains info that the kernel needs to keep track of the process and to stop and restart the process while other processes are allowed to execute.

Daemon Process
Introduction
* Daemon process starts during system startup.
* They frequently spawn other process to handle services requests.
- Mostly started by initialization script /etc/rc
* Waits for an event to occur.
* perform some specified task on periodic basis (cron job)
* perform the requested service and wait
- Example print server

Characteristics
* executed at the background process
* Orphan process
* No controlling terminal
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* run with super user privileges
* process group leaders
* session leaders

How to daemonize
1. Call umask to set the file mode creation mask to a known value, usually 0.
2. Call fork and have the parent exit. Child inherits the process group ID of the parent but gets a new process ID, so we're guaranteed  that the child is not a process group leader. This is a prerequisite for the call to  setsid that is done next.
3. Call setsid to create a new session. The three steps listed in Section 9.5 occur.  The process (a) becomes the leader of a new session, (b) becomes the leader of a new process group, and (c) is disassociated from its controlling terminal.
4. Change the current working directory to the root directory. The current working directory inherited from the parent could be on a mounted file system.
5. Unneeded file descriptors should be closed. This prevents the daemon from holding open any descriptors that it may have inherited from its parent (which could be a shell or some other process).
6. Some daemons open file descriptors 0, 1, and 2 to /dev/null so that any library routines that try to read from standard input or write to standard output or standard error will have no effect.

$ ps -axj   #to get all daemon process, does not have terminal

#include  "apue.h"
#include  <syslog.h>
#include  <fcntl.h>
#include  <sys/resource.h>
void
daemonize(const char *cmd)
{
int                 i, fd0, fd1, fd2;
pid_t               pid;
struct rlimit       rl;
struct sigaction    sa;
/*
* Clear file creation mask.
*/
umask(0);
/*
* Get maximum number of file descriptors.
*/
if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE, &rl) < 0)
 err_quit("%s: can't get file limit", cmd);
/*
* Become a session leader to lose controlling TTY.
*/
if ((pid = fork()) < 0)
 err_quit("%s: can't fork", cmd);
else if (pid != 0) /* parent */
 exit(0);
setsid();
/*
* Ensure future opens won't allocate controlling TTYs.
*/
 sa.sa_handler = SIG_IGN;
 sigemptyset(&sa.sa_mask);
  sa.sa_flags = 0;
  if (sigaction(SIGHUP, &sa, NULL) < 0)
       err_quit("%s: can't ignore SIGHUP", cmd);
  if ((pid = fork()) < 0)
       err_quit("%s: can't fork", cmd);
  else if (pid != 0) /* parent */
       exit(0);
  /*
    * Change the current working directory to the root so
    * we won't prevent file systems from being unmounted.
    */
  if (chdir("/") < 0)
       err_quit("%s: can't change directory to /", cmd);
  /*
    * Close all open file descriptors.
    */
  if (rl.rlim_max == RLIM_INFINITY)
       rl.rlim_max = 1024;
  for (i = 0; i < rl.rlim_max; i++)
       close(i);
  /*
    * Attach file descriptors 0, 1, and 2 to /dev/null.
    */
  fd0 = open("/dev/null", O_RDWR);
  fd1 = dup(0);
  fd2 = dup(0);
  /*
    * Initialize the log file.
    */
  openlog(cmd, LOG_CONS, LOG_DAEMON);
  if (fd0 != 0 || fd1 != 1 || fd2 != 2) {
       syslog(LOG_ERR, "unexpected file descriptors %d %d %d",
         fd0, fd1, fd2);
       exit(1);
  }
}

Day 3 Morning
  7. Process Management

1. wait, waitpid
#include <sys/types.h>
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#include <sys/wait.h>

pid_t wait(int *status);
pid_t waitpid(pid_t pid, int *status, int options);
int waitid(idtype_t idtype, id_t id, siginfo_t *infop, int options);
    wait, waitpid - wait for process to change state
A state change is considered  to be: the child terminated; the child was stopped by a signal; or the child was resumed by a1. wait, waitpid signal.  In the case of a terminated child, performing a wait allows the system to  release the resources associated with the child; if a wait is not performed, then termi nated the child remains in a "zombie" state.

If a child has already changed state, then these calls return immediately. Otherwise they block until either a child changes state or a signal handler interrupts the call (assuming that system calls are not automatically restarted using the 
SA_RESTART
flag of sigaction(2)).
waitpid(-1, &status, 0);

The value of pid can be:
< -1 meaning wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to the absolute value of pid.
-1 meaning wait for any child process.
0 meaning wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to that of the calling process.
> 0 meaning wait for the child whose process ID is equal to the value of pid.

#include <stdio.h>
int main ()	{
int i=0,pid;
printf ("Ready to fork
");
pid = fork();
if (pid == 0)
{
printf ("Child starts
");
for(i=0;i<1000;i++) printf ("%d\t",i);
printf ("Child ends
");
sleep(30);  uncomment this to get child orphaned process
}else {
Wait(0); //comment and sleep to get child as zombie process
printf ("Parent process
");
}
}

2. exec
#include <unistd.h>

extern char **environ;

int execl(const char *path, const char *arg, ...);
int execlp(const char *file, const char *arg, ...);
int execle(const char *path, const char *arg,
                  ..., char * const envp[]);
int execv(const char *path, char *const argv[]);
int execvp(const char *file, char *const argv[]);
       execl, execlp, execle, execv, execvp - execute a file
execl
#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
int pid;
pid = fork();
if (pid == 0)
{
 printf ("Exec starts
");
 execl("/bin/ls","ls","-l",(char *)0);
 printf ("Execl did not work
");
}
else
{
 wait(0);
 printf ("Parent:Is completed in child
");
 }
}
execv

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#include <stdio.h>
int main ()
{
char *temp[4];
temp[0] = "ls";
temp[1] = "-l";
temp[2] = (char *)0;
execv("/bin/ls",temp);
printf ("This will not print
");
}
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Day 3 Morning
  8. Memory Management

Factors to be considered while designing secondary memory

Latency, Throughput and Bandwidth
Latency - : Amount of time for a single operation to execute.
Throughput - Rate at which operations get executed.
              Normally expressed as Operations/second.
              In sequential processing throughput = 1 /latency
Bandwidth - : Total rate at which data moves between processor and memory.
              Product of throughput and datawidth

Pipelining, Parallelism and Pre-charging
Memory systems can be pipelined similar to the processors are pipelined, allowing operations to overlap execution to improve throughput.
Many memory technologies require a certain delay (idle time ) between operations to pre-charge circuitry for the next access.
Attaching multiple memories to the processor's memory bus allows parallelism. This increases the rate at which memory is accessed without increasing the pin count of the processor.

Two kinds of systems that support parallelism - Replicated & Banked.
Replicated provides multiple copies of entire memory. Store needs to write into all copies( more expensive than loads ).
Banked memory - Data is divided or interleaved across memories.


Example:
What is the bandwidth of a memory system with a latency of 40 ns that transfers 1 byte per operation and is pipelined to allow 4 operations to overlap execution (
assume no pipelining overhead ) ?

Dividing latency 40 ns by number of overlapped operations ( 4 ) gives a rate of 1 operation per 10 ns as the throughput of the memory system. At 1 byte of data per operation, this gives a bandwidth of 100 Mbyte/sec.

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Levels in the Memory Hierarchy
Cache :
1. Generally implemented using SRAM.
2. Use hardware to keep track of addresses stored in them.
3. Tend to be small ( capacity ).
4. Small Block Sizes ( 32 to 128 bytes ).

Main Memory:
1. Generally implemented using DRAM.
2. Use software to keep track of addresses.
3. Larger capacity ( Few MB to several Gigabytes ).
4. Larger Block Sizes ( several kilobytes ).

Virtual Memory:
1. Implemented using disks.
2. Contains all of the data in the memory system.

Some terminology...
Hit : When an address is found at a given hierarchy.
Miss: When an address is NOT found at a given hierarchy.
Hit Rate: % of references that reach a given level & result in hits.
Miss Rate: % of references that reach a given level & result in misses.
Note: Hit Rate + Miss Rate = 100% ALWAYS.

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When a miss occurs, a BLOCK of data is brought in from a lower level into the current level of the hierarchy. As time progresses, the current level may fill up, and run out of free space. A block must be removed to accommodate the new block. This is called eviction or replacement. The method to decide on what block to remove is called replacement policy.
To simplify evicting data blocks, many memory systems maintain a property called inclusion. The presence of an address at a given level of a memory hierarchy GUARANTEES that the address is present in ALL LOWER LEVELS of the memory system.

Computing average access times in a memory hierarchy...

If we know the hit-rate and access-time ( time to complete a request that hits ) for each level in the hierarchy, we can compute average access time of the memory hierarchy. For each level in the hierarchy, the average access time is
( T hit x P hit ) + ( T miss x P miss )
Where T hit = Time to resolve requests that hit in the level
P hit = Hi-rate of the level, expressed as a probability.
T miss = Average access time of the level below this one. rate of the level.
P miss = Miss
Note that Hit-rate of the lowest level is 100%, we start at the bottom and compute the average access time of each level upwards in the hierarchy.

Example:
A memory system contains a cache, a DRAM and a Virtual Store. The access time of the cache is 5 ns with a hit-rate of 80%, whereas the access time of the DRAM is 100 ns with a 99.5 % hit-rate. The access time of the virtual store is 10 ms. What is the average access time of the hierarchy ?
We start at the bottom and work upwards:
The hit-rate of Virtual store is always 100%.
Average access time for requests that reach DRAM
= ( 100 ns x 0.995 ) + ( 10 ms x 0.005 ) = 50,099.5 ns
The average access time for requests that reach the cache
( which is ALL REQUESTS !!)
= ( 5 ns x 0.80 ) + ( 50,099.5 ns x 0.20 ) = 10,024 ns


SRAM and DRAM Chips
These have the same basic structure ( shown in next slide )
Data is stored in rectangular array of bit cells, each holding 1 bit. To read data from the array, half of the address to be read ( generally high order bits) is fed into a decoder. The decoder asserts (drives high) the word line corresponding to the value of its input bits, which causes all of the bit cells in the corresponding row to drive their values onto bit lines that they are connected to.

The other half of the address is then used as an input to a multiplexer that selects the
appropriate bit line and drives its output onto the output pins of the chip.

To store data on the chip, the same process is used, except the value to be written is
driven on appropriate bit line and written into the selected bit cell.

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Day 3 Morning
  8. Memory Management

#include <stdlib.h>

void *malloc(size_t size);
void free(void *ptr);
void *calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);

The malloc() function allocates size bytes and returns a pointer to the allocated memory. The memory is not initialized. If size is 0, then malloc() returns either NULL, or a unique pointer value that can later be successfully passed to free().

The free() function frees the memory space pointed to by ptr, which must have been returned by a previous call to malloc(), calloc(), or realloc().

The calloc() function allocates memory for an array of nmemb elements of size bytes each and returns a pointer to the allocated memory. The memory is set to zero. If nmemb or size is 0, then calloc() returns either NULL, or a unique pointer value that can later be successfully passed to free().

The  realloc() function changes the size of the memory block pointed to by ptr to size bytes. The contents will be unchanged in the range from the start of the region up to the minimum of the old and new sizes.

#include <alloca.h>
void *alloca(size_t size);

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DESCRIPTION
The  alloca() function allocates size bytes of space in the stack frame of the caller.  This temporary space is automatically  freed  when  the function that called alloca() returns to its caller.

Day 3 Morning
  8. Memory Management

Virtual Memory
Each program has a virtual address space which is the set of addresses that programs use for load and store operations.

The physical address space is the set of addresses used to reference locations in main memory.

The virtual address space is divided into pages some of which reside inside a page frame ( slots in main memory ) while others reside on the disk. Pages are always aligned on a multiple of the page size so that the addresses never overlap.

The terms virtual page and physical page are used to describe a page of data in the virtual and physical address spaces respectively.

Pages that have been loaded into main memory are said to have been mapped.

Virtual memory allows a computer to act as if its main memory were much larger than it actually is.

When a program references a virtual address, it cannot tell, except by timing the latency of the operation, whether the virtual address was resident in the main memory or whether it had to be fetched from disk.

This makes it possible for the computer to shuffle pages in and out of the main memory exactly like data is brought in and out of the cache.


Day 3 Morning
  8. Memory Management

Address Translation
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Programs running on systems with Virtual Memory use Virtual Addresses as the arguments to load and store instructions.

The main memory uses Physical Addresses to record locations where data is actually stored.

Whenever a program uses a Virtual Address, this must be converted into a Physical Address and this process is known as Address Translation.

When a program accesses a memory location, the O.S accesses a Page Table, which is a data structure that contains the mapping of the virtual address to the physical address.

If the virtual page is mapped ( present in memory ) then the physical address is retrieved and the operation proceeds.

If the virtual page is NOT mapped, then a page fault occurs and the O.S fetches the page from the hard disk, loading it into a page frame, and updating the page table with the new translation. Once the page has been read into memory from disk, and the page table updated, the physical address of the page can be determined and the memory reference completed.

If all the page frames already contain data, one of them must be evicted to the disk to make room for the incoming data. The replacement policies used to select the page that is evicted are similar to the ones for set-associative caches.

Because both virtual and physical pages are always aligned on a multiple of their size, the page table does not need to keep track of the full virtual or physical address of a page that is mapped. Instead virtual addresses are divided into a Virtual Page Number or VPN and a set of bits that describe an offset from the start of the virtual page to the virtual address. Similarly, the physical pages are divided into Physical Page Numbers or PPN and an offset

Because both virtual and physical pages are always aligned on a multiple of their size, the page table does not need to keep track of the full virtual or physical address of a page that is mapped. Instead virtual addresses are divided into a Virtual Page Number or VPN and a set of bits that describe an offset from the start of the virtual page to the virtual address. Similarly, the physical pages are divided into Physical Page Numbers or PPN and an offset from the start of the physical page to the physical address.

The virtual and physical pages in a given system are generally the same size, so the number of bits
(log 2 of the page size) for the offset of the virtual and physical addresses are the same.

The VPN and PPN may be of different lengths. For example, on 64-bit systems, the virtual addresses are generally much longer than physical addresses.


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The page table is accessed using the virtual page frame number as an offset.

Virtual page frame 5 would be the 6th element of the table (0 is the first element).

To translate a virtual address into a physical one, the processor must first work out
the virtual addresses page frame number and the offset within that virtual page. By
making the page size a power of 2 this can be easily done by masking and shifting.
Assuming a page size of 0x2000 bytes (which is decimal 8192) and an address of 0x2194 in process Y's virtual address space then the processor would translate that address into offset 0x194 into virtual page frame number 1.


V Valid, if set this PTE is valid,
FOE "Fault on Execute", Whenever an attempt to execute instructions in this page
occurs, the processor reports a page fault and passes control to the operating system,

FOW "Fault on Write", as above but page fault on an attempt to write to this page,
FOR "Fault on Read", as above but page fault on an attempt to read from this page,
ASM Address Space Match. This is used when the operating system wishes to clear only some of the entries from the Translation Buffer,
KRE Code running in kernel mode can read this page,
URE Code running in user mode can read this page,
GH Granularity hint used when mapping an entire block with a single Translation. Buffer entry rather than many,
KWE Code running in kernel mode can write to this page,
UWE Code running in user mode can write to this page,

page frame number For PTEs with the V bit set, this field contains the physical Page Frame Number (page frame number) for this PTE. For invalid PTEs, if this field is not zero, it contains information about where the page is in the swap file.
The following two bits are defined and used by Linux:
PAGE DIRTY if set, the page needs to be written out to the swap file,
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PAGE ACCESSED Used by Linux to mark a page as having been accessed.

TLB, Translation Lookaside Buffers
A major disadvantage of using page tables is that a page table must be accessed for every memory reference. On a system with a single-level page table, this doubles the number of memory accesses, since each load or store operation requires one memory reference to access the appropriate page table and one to perform the actual load/store. This greatly increases the latency of a memory reference.

The problem is even greater on multi-level page tables, because multiple references are required to traverse the page table. To reduce penalty, CPUs that incorporate virtual memory use Translation Looaside Buffers ( TLBs) that act as caches for the page table. Whenever a program performs a memory reference the virtual address is sent
to the TLB to determine if it contains a translation for that address. If so, the TLB returns the physical address and the memory reference continues.

If not, a TLB miss occurs and the system searches the page table for a translation. Some systems provide hardwaresupport for a TLB miss while others require the OS to access the page table thru software.


TLB misses versus Page Faults
In a system that supports TLBs, 3 possible cases exist:
1. Hit in the TLB : The TLB contains the physical address and it is returned immediately.
2. TLB miss, but page mapped : In this case the system accesses the page table from memory to find the translation for the virtual address, copies that translation into TLB returns the memory reference
3. TLB miss and page not mapped: The system accesses the page table and finds that its is not mapped. This results in a page fault. The O.S loads the page's data from disk in the same manner as a virtual memory system that does not contain TLB.

TLB misses and page faults are handled very differently by the O.S because of the difference in the amount of time it takes to resolve each event.

TLB misses generally take a short time to resolve if the page is mapped and normally takes a few hundred cycles so user programs can just wait for its completion.

TLB misses that result in a page fault can take a few milliseconds which is the amount of time slice generally given to a process. Therefore, a page fault can trigger a context switch through invoking the scheduler while the page fault is being resolved.


TLB Entry
TLBs are organized similar to caches having an associativity and number of sets. While cache sizes are typically described in bytes, TLBs are in number of entres or translations contained in them, since the amount of space taken up by each entry is mostly irrelevant to the performance of the system.
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This a 128-entry, 4-way set-associative TLB would have 32 sets each containing 4 entries.

The TLB entry contains the VPN of the page that it is a translation for, which is compared to the VPN of the address of a memory reference to determine if a hit has occurred.

Like a cache's tag array entry, bits of the VPN used to select an entry in the TLB are omitted to save space. All the bits of the PPN are stored however, since they may differ from the corresponding bits in the VPN.

Day 3 Morning
  8. Memory Management

Demand Paging
As there is much less physical memory than virtual memory the operating system must be careful that it does not use the physical memory inefficiently. One way to save physical memory is to only load virtual pages that are currently being used by the executing program.

This technique of only loading virtual pages into memoryas they are accessed is known as demand paging.

When a process attempts to access a virtual address that is not currently in memory the processor cannot find a page table entry for the virtual page referenced. For Example in previous figure there is no entry in process X's page table for virtual page frame number 2 and so if process X attempts to read from an address within virtual page frame number 2 the processor cannot translate the address into a physical one. At this point the processor notifies the operating system that a page fault has Occurred.

If the faulting virtual address is invalid this means that the process has attempted to access a virtual address that it should not have. Maybe the application has gone wrong in some way, for example writing to random addresses in memory. In this case the operating system will terminate it, protecting the other processes in the system from this rogue process.

If the faulting virtual address was valid but the page that it refers to is not currently in memory, the operating system must bring the appropriate page into memory from the image on disk.

The fetched page is written into a free physical page frame and an entry for the virtual page frame number is added to the processes page table. The process is then restarted at the machine instruction where the memory fault occurred. This time the virtual memory access is made, the processor can make the virtual to physical address translation and so the process continues to run.

Linux uses demand paging to load executable images into a processes virtual memory.  Whenever a command is executed, the file containing it is opened and its contents are mapped into the processes virtual memory. This is done by modifying the data structures describing this processes memory map and is known as memory mapping.

However, only the first part of the image is actually brought into physical memory.  The rest of the image is left on disk. As the image executes, it generates page faults and Linux uses the processes memory map in order to determine which parts of the image to bring into memory for execution.

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Day 3 Morning
  8. Memory Management

Process Address Space

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Day 4 Morning
  9. Multi Thread Programming

Introduction
* Thread is a sequential flow of control through a program.
* If a process is defined as a program in execution then a thread is defined as a function in execution.
* If a thread is created, it will execute a specified function.
* Two type of threading:
- Single Threading
- Multi threading


POSIX Thread
The created threads within a process share
instructions of a process
process address space and data
open file descriptors
pwd, uid and gid

The created threads maintain its own:
thread identification number (tid)
pc, sp, set of registers
stack
Signal Handlers priority of the threads scheduling policy

Advantages of Threads:
Takes less time for:
* Creation of a new thread
* Termination of a thread
* Communication between threads are easier.


There are two broad categories of thread
implementation:
1. User level Threads (ULT)
2. Kernel level threads (or kernel-supported threads or Light weight processes)

Thread management
Thread management is done by the application and the kernel is not aware of the existence of threads.
* Thread library contains code for creating and destroying threads, passing messages and data between threads, for scheduling thread execution and for saving and restoring
thread contexts.
* This thread application are allocated to a single process managed by the kernel.
* All the activity takes place in user space and within a single process. The kernel continues to schedule the process as a unit and assigns a single execution state to that process.


ULT
Advantages:
* Thread switching does not require kernel mode.
* Scheduling can be application specific.
* Can run on any OS.
Disadvantages:
* When it executes a system call, not only is that thread is
blocked, but all the threads within the process are blocked.

KLT
Kernel Level Threads:
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* Thread management is done by the kernel
- Advantage: If one thread in a process is blocked, kernel can schedule another thread of the same process.
- Disadvantage: Transfer of control from one thread to another within the same process requires a mode switch to the kernel


Advantages of Multi Threading
Improve application responsiveness
Use multiprocessors more efficiently
Improve program structure
use fewer system resources
Specific applications in uniprocessor machines
Applications
 A file server on a LAN
 Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)
  web applications

Day 4 Morning
  9. Multi Thread Programming

Parent wait on join() system call to let children join them
Hello Thread Example
#include <pthread.h>
void thread_function (void) {
printf (" Hello POSIX Thread
");
printf ("Thread id: %d
", pthread_self());
}
main ( ) {
pthread_t mythread;
pthread_create ( &mythread, NULL, thread_function, NULL);
pthread_join (mythread, NULL);
}
$cc thread.c -lpthread

Day 4 Morning
  9. Multi Thread Programming

1. pthread_create

#include <pthread.h>

int pthread_create(pthread_t *restrict thread,  const pthread_attr_t *restrict attr, void *(*start_routine)(void*), void *restrict arg);

The pthread_create() function shall create a new thread, with attributes specified by attr, within a process. If attr is NULL, the default attributes shall be used. If the attributes specified by attr are modified later, the thread's attributes shall not be affected. Upon  successful completion, pthread_create() shall store the ID of the created thread in the location referenced by thread.

#include<stdio.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<pthread.h>
#include<string.h>

void *thread_fun(void *arg);

char message[]="hello world";

int main()
{
int res;
pthread_t a_thread;
void *thread_result;

res=pthread_create(&a_thread,NULL,thread_fun,(void *)message);
if(res !=0){
 perror("unable to create thread
");
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 exit(1);
}
printf("waiting for thread to finish
");
//Thread joining, catch exit value from the thread	
res=pthread_join(a_thread,&thread_result);

if(res !=0){
 perror("unable to join thread
");
 exit(1);
}

printf("thread joined , it returned %s
",(char *)thread_result);
printf("Message is now %s
",message);
exit(0);
}

void *thread_fun(void *arg)
{
printf("thread fun ,arg is %s
",(char *)arg);
sleep(3);
strcpy(message,"bye");
//exit with return value
pthread_exit("thank you");
}

2. pthread_key_create
#include <pthread.h>

int pthread_key_create(pthread_key_t *key, void (*destructor)(void*));
 pthread_key_create - thread-specific data key creation

The pthread_key_create() function shall create a thread-specific data key visible to all threads in the process. Key values provided by pthread_key_create() are opaque objects used to locate thread-specific data. Although the same key value may be used by different threads, the values bound to the key by pthread_setspecific() are maintained on a per-thread basis and persist for the life of the calling thread.

Upon key creation, the value NULL shall be associated with the new key in all active threads. Upon thread creation, the value NULL shall be associated with all defined keys in the new thread.

#include <malloc.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h>

/* The key used to associate a log file pointer with each thread. */
static pthread_key_t thread_log_key;

/* Write MESSAGE to the log file for the current thread. */

void write_to_thread_log (const char* message)
{
FILE* thread_log = (FILE*) pthread_getspecific (thread_log_key);
fprintf (thread_log, "%s
", message);
}

/* Close the log file pointer THREAD_LOG. */
void close_thread_log (void* thread_log)
{
fclose ((FILE*) thread_log);
}


void* thread_function (void* args)
{
char thread_log_filename[20];
FILE* thread_log;
/* Generate the filename for this thread's log file. */
sprintf (thread_log_filename, "thread%d.log", (int) pthread_self ());
/* Open the log file. */
thread_log = fopen (thread_log_filename, "w");
/* Store the file pointer in thread-specific data under thread_log_key. */
pthread_setspecific (thread_log_key, thread_log);
write_to_thread_log ("Thread starting.");
/* Do work here... */
return NULL;
}
main ()
{
int i;
pthread_t threads[5];

/* Create a key to associate thread log file pointers in
thread-specific data. Use close_thread_log to clean up the file
pointers. */

pthread_key_create (&thread_log_key, close_thread_log);

/* Create threads to do the work. */
for (i = 0; i < 5; ++i)
pthread_create (&(threads[i]), NULL, thread_function, NULL);

/* Wait for all threads to finish. */

for (i = 0; i < 5; ++i)
pthread_join (threads[i], NULL);
return 0;
}

3. pthread_mutex_init
#include <pthread.h>

int pthread_mutex_destroy(pthread_mutex_t *mutex);
int pthread_mutex_init(pthread_mutex_t *restrict mutex, const pthread_mutexattr_t *restrict attr);
pthread_mutex_t mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;

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The pthread_mutex_destroy() function shall destroy the mutex object referenced by mutex; the mutex object becomes, in effect, uninitialized. An implementation may cause pthread_mutex_destroy() to set the object referenced by mutex to an invalid value. A destroyed mutex object can be reinitialized using pthread_mutex_init(); the results of oth erwise referencing the object after it has been destroyed are undefined.
It shall be safe to destroy an initialized mutex that is unlocked. Attempting to destroy a locked mutex results in undefined behavior.

The pthread_mutex_init() function shall initialize the mutex referenced by mutex with attributes specified by attr. If attr is NULL, the default mutex attributes are used; the effect shall be the same as passing the address of a default mutex attributes object. Upon successful initialization, the state of the mutex becomes initialized and unlocked.

#include<stdio.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<pthread.h>
#include<semaphore.h>

void *thread_fun(void *arg);

pthread_mutex_t work_mutex;

char work_area[1024];
int time_to_exit=0;
int main()
{
int res;
pthread_t a_thread;
void *thread_result;
	
res=pthread_mutex_init(&work_mutex,NULL);//initialize mutex  default attr
res=pthread_create(&a_thread,NULL,thread_fun,NULL);
pthread_mutex_lock(&work_mutex); //put a lock to the main thread, then enjoy
	
printf("input some text enter end to finish
");
while(!time_to_exit)	{
 fgets(work_area,1024,stdin);

 //unlock the main thread,your subordinate is waiting
 pthread_mutex_unlock(&work_mutex);
 while(1){
  pthread_mutex_lock(&work_mutex);//lock it is your turn
  if(work_area[0] != '\0') {
   pthread_mutex_unlock(&work_mutex);
   sleep(1);
  }
  else
  break;

 }
}

pthread_mutex_unlock(&work_mutex);
printf("waiting for thread to finish
");
res=pthread_join(a_thread,&thread_result);
printf("thread joined , it returned %s
",(char *)thread_result);
pthread_mutex_destroy(&work_mutex);
exit(0);
}


void *thread_fun(void *arg)
{
sleep(1);//Sleep well Let main thread send some data
pthread_mutex_lock(&work_mutex);//lock the curr thread
while(strncmp("end",work_area,3) !=0)
{
 printf("you entered %d characters
",strlen(work_area) -1);	
 work_area[0]='\0';
 pthread_mutex_unlock(&work_mutex);//unlock the current thread
 sleep(1);//Sleep well , Let main thread do it's job
 pthread_mutex_lock(&work_mutex);
 while(work_area[0] == '\0')
 {
  pthread_mutex_unlock(&work_mutex);
  sleep(1);
  pthread_mutex_lock(&work_mutex);
 }
}
time_to_exit=1;
work_area[0]='\0';	
pthread_mutex_unlock(&work_mutex);

pthread_exit("thank you");

}//End of the function
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Day 4 Morning
  10. Inter process communication

Persistence of various ipcs

Unnamed Pipe or Pipe

On command line pipe is represented as "|"
* It can be used in the shell to link two or more commands
- For example ls 
-Rl | wc
* Two ends of a pipe is represented as a set of two descriptors. * A pipe is used to communicate between related Processes (common ancestor). Normally, a pipe is created by a process, that process calls fork, and the pipe is used between the parent and the child. * Half duplex * Data is passed in order. * Pipe uses circular buffer and it has zero buffering capacity * The read and write system calls are blocking calls.
#include <unistd.h>
int fd[2];


int pipe(int fd[2]);

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One Way Communication between parent and child

Create a pipe.
* Call fork.
* Parent can send data and child can read the data or vice versa.
* Unused ends (descriptors) should be closed.


parent closes the read end of the pipe (fd[0]), and the child closes the write end (fd[1]).


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Two way Communication
* Create two pipes say fd1, fd2.
* Four descriptors for each process (
fd1[0],fd1[1],fd2[0],fd2[1]
) * Parent closes read end of fd1 and write end of fd2
- close(fd1[0], fd2[1]);
* child closes read end of fd2 and write end of fd1
- close(fd2[0], fd1[1]);


Pipe : Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages:
* Simplest form of IPC
* Persistence in process level
* Can be used in shell

Disadvantages:
* Cannot be used to communicate between unrelated processes

popen and pclose Functions

The function popen does a fork and exec to execute the cmdstring and returns a standard I/O file pointer. If type is "r", the file pointer is connected to the standard output of cmdstring.
If type is "w", the file pointer is connected to the standard input of cmdstring.

#include <stdio.h>
FILE *popen(const char *cmdstring, const char *type);
          Returns: file pointer if OK, NULL on error
int pclose(FILE *fp);
          Returns: termination status of cmdstring, or -1 on error


Result of 
fp = popen(cmdstring, "r")

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SIMPLEX PIPE

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h>
main() {
int pipefd[2],n;
char buff[100];

if(pipe(pipefd) < 0) //create a pipe with two descriptors
 perror("filed in openning pipe
");
printf("read fd = %d, write fd = %d
",pipefd[0],pipefd[1]);

//write into the pipe's write decriptor
if(write(pipefd[1],"hello world.....!",18)!= 18)
 perror("filed in writing pipe
");

//read from the pipe's read decriptor
if((n = read(pipefd[0],buff,sizeof(buff))) < 0)
 perror("filed in writing pipe
");

write(1 , buff, n);     //write to the stdout
exit(0);
}

DUPLEX PIPE

#include <stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include <string.h>
# define MAXBUF 1024
void client(int  readfd,  int writefd) {
char buff[MAXBUF];
int n;
puts("Enter file name
");
scanf("%s",buff);
n = strlen(buff);
if(buff[n-1] == '
') n--;
if(write(writefd,buff, n) !=n) perror("client: write error
");
while((n = read(readfd,buff,MAXBUF)) > 0){
 if(write(1,buff,n)!= n)
  perror("client: error
");
}
if(n < 0)
 perror("Client: write error
");
}

void server(int readfd,int  writefd) {
char    buff[MAXBUF];
int     n, fd;
if((n = read(readfd, buff, MAXBUF)) <= 0) perror("server: read error
");
buff[n] = '\0';
if((fd = open(buff,0)) < 0) perror("server:open error
");
while((n = read(fd,buff,MAXBUF)) > 0) if(write(writefd,buff,n)!= n) perror("server: write error
");
 if(n < 0) perror("server : read error
");
}

main() {
int     pipefd1[2], pipefd2[2], childfd, n;
char    buff[100];
if(pipe(pipefd1) < 0 || pipe(pipefd2) < 0) perror("filed in openning pipes
");
if((childfd = fork()) < 0){
perror("can't fork");
close(pipefd1[0]);
close(pipefd1[1]);
close(pipefd2[0]);
close(pipefd2[1]);
}
else if(childfd > 0){           //Parent process
close(pipefd1[0]);      //read1
close(pipefd2[1]);      //write2
client(pipefd2[0],pipefd1[1]);
while(wait(( int *) 0)!= childfd);
close(pipefd1[1]);
close(pipefd2[0]);
} else {                        // child process
close(pipefd1[1]);      // write1
close(pipefd2[0]);      // read2
server(pipefd1[0],pipefd2[1]);
close(pipefd1[0]);
close(pipefd2[1]);
}
exit(0);
}

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Day 4 Morning
  10. Inter process communication

FIFO: Introduction
* FIFO works much like a pipe
 -Half duplex, data passed in FIFO order, circular buffer
and zero buffering capacity.
* FIFO is created on a file system as a device
special file
* It can be used to communicate between unrelated
processes
* It can be reused.
* Persist till the file is deleted.


FIFO Creation
* FIFO can be created in a shell by using mknod or
mkfifo command.
 - mknod myfifo p
 - mkfifo a=rw myfifo
* In a C program mknod system call or mkfifo library function can be used.
 - int mkfifo ( char *file_name, mode_t mode);
 - int mknod (char *file_name, mode_t mode, dev_t dev);
* mknod("./MYFIFO", S_IFIFO|0666, 0);

Using FIFO
* Once a FIFO is created either from a shell or through a program, file's related system calls (open, read, write, select, close etc., ) are used to access the FIFO.
* For example: Process 1 may open a FIFO in write only mode and write some data.
* Process 2 may open the FIFO in read only mode, read the data and display on the monitor.

FIFO: Disadvantages
* Data cannot be broadcast to multiple receivers.
* If there are multiple receivers, there is no way to direct to a specific reader or vice versa.
* Cannot be used across network
* Less secure than a pipe, since any process with valid access permission can access data.
* Cannot store data
* No message boundaries. Data is treated as a stream of Bytes.

#include <stdio.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

# define FIFO1  "/tmp/fifo1" //fifos can be created in users home
# define FIFO2  "/tmp/fifo2" //directory also.

# define MAXBUF 1024

void client(int  readfd,  int writefd) {
char buff[MAXBUF];
int n;
puts("Enter file name
");
scanf("%s",buff);       //reading file name
n = strlen(buff);
if(buff[n-1] == '
') n--;
if(write(writefd,buff, n) !=n) //writing file name into fifo
perror("client: write error
");
while((n = read(readfd,buff,MAXBUF)) > 0) if(write(1,buff,n)!= n) perror("client: error
");
if(n < 0) perror("Client: write error
");
}

void server(int readfd,int  writefd) {
char buff[MAXBUF];
int n, fd;
if((n = read(readfd, buff, MAXBUF)) <= 0) perror("server: read error
");
buff[n] = '\0';
if((fd = open(buff,0)) < 0) perror("server:open error
");
while((n = read(fd,buff,MAXBUF)) > 0) if(write(writefd,buff,n)!= n) perror("server: write error
");
if(n < 0) perror("server : read error
");
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}

main() {
int     readfd, writefd ,pid;
//fifo is created with user read and write //permission.
if((mkfifo(FIFO1, 0666)) < 0){
perror("Fifo1 failed
");
exit(1);
}
if((mkfifo(FIFO2, 0666)) < 0){
perror("Fifo1 failed
");
exit(2);
}
if((pid = fork()) == 0){
readfd = open(FIFO1, 0, 0);//child opens fifo1 for read
writefd = open(FIFO2, 1, 0);//child opens fifo2 for write
//child process calls server function
server(readfd, writefd);
exit(3);
}
writefd = open(FIFO1, 1, 0);
readfd = open(FIFO2, 0, 0);
//Parent becomes client process
client(readfd, writefd);

//parent wait till exit status returned is equal to pid(current child)
waitpid(pid,NULL,0);
close(readfd);
close(writefd);

unlink(FIFO1);  //removing fifo from /tmp
unlink(FIFO2);
exit(0);
}

Day 4 Morning
  10. Inter process communication

The common communication channel between user space program and kernel is given by the system calls.
But there is a different channel, that of the signals, used both between user processes and from kernel to user process.

Sending Signals
A program can signal a different program using the kill() system call with prototype
int kill(pid_t pid, int sig);
This will send the signal with number sig to the process with process ID pid . Signal numbers are small positive integers.

Receiving signals
typedef void (*sighandler_t)(int);
sighandler_t signal(int sig, sighandler_t handler);

Signal     Value     Action   Comment
-------------------------------------------------
SIGHUP        1       Term    Hangup detected on controlling terminal or death of controlling process
SIGINT        2       Term    Interrupt from keyboard
SIGQUIT       3       Core    Quit from keyboard
SIGILL        4       Core    Illegal Instruction
SIGABRT       6       Core    Abort signal from abort(3)
SIGFPE        8       Core    Floating point exception
SIGKILL       9       Term    Kill signal
SIGSEGV      11       Core    Invalid memory reference
SIGPIPE      13       Term    Broken pipe: write to pipe with no
readers
SIGALRM      14       Term    Timer signal from alarm(2)
SIGTERM      15       Term    Termination signal
SIGUSR1   30,10,16    Term    User-defined signal 1
SIGUSR2   31,12,17    Term    User-defined signal 2
SIGCHLD   20,17,18    Ign     Child stopped or terminated
SIGCONT   19,18,25    Cont    Continue if stopped
SIGSTOP   17,19,23    Stop    Stop process
SIGTSTP   18,20,24    Stop    Stop typed at terminal
SIGTTIN   21,21,26    Stop    Terminal input for background process
SIGTTOU   22,22,27    Stop    Terminal output for background process

The signals SIGKILL and SIGSTOP cannot be caught, blocked, or ignored.

Signals not in the POSIX.1-1990 standard but described in SUSv2 and POSIX.1-2001.
Signal       Value     Action   Comment
--------------------------------------------------------------
SIGBUS      10,7,10     Core    Bus error (bad memory access)
SIGPOLL                 Term    Pollable event (Sys V).
Synonym for SIGIO
SIGPROF     27,27,29    Term    Profiling timer expired
SIGSYS      12,31,12    Core    Bad argument to routine (SVr4)
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SIGTRAP        5        Core    Trace/breakpoint trap
SIGURG      16,23,21    Ign     Urgent condition on socket (4.2BSD)
SIGVTALRM   26,26,28    Term    Virtual alarm clock (4.2BSD)
SIGXCPU     24,24,30    Core    CPU time limit exceeded (4.2BSD)
SIGXFSZ     25,25,31    Core    File size limit exceeded (4.2BSD)

various other signals.
Signal       Value     Action   Comment
-------------------------------------------------
SIGIOT         6        Core    IOT trap. A synonym for SIGABRT
SIGEMT       7,-,7      Term
SIGSTKFLT    -,16,-     Term    Stack fault on coprocessor (unused)
SIGIO       23,29,22    Term    I/O now possible (4.2BSD)
SIGCLD       -,-,18     Ign     A synonym for SIGCHLD
SIGPWR      29,30,19    Term    Power failure (System V)
SIGINFO      29,-,-             A synonym for SIGPWR
SIGLOST      -,-,-      Term    File lock lost (unused)
SIGWINCH    28,28,20    Ign     Window resize signal (4.3BSD, Sun)
SIGUNUSED    -,31,-     Core    Synonymous with SIGSYS

Blocking signals
Each process has a list (bitmask) of currently blocked signals. When a signal is blocked, it is not delivered (that is, no signal handling routine is called), but remains pending.
The sigprocmask() system call serves to change the list of blocked signals. See sigprocmask(2).
The sigpending() system call reveals what signals are (blocked and) pending.
The sigsuspend() system call suspends the calling process until a specified signal is received.
When a signal is blocked, it remains pending, even when otherwise the process would ignore it.

wait and SIGCHLD
Whenever the child (it exits, crashes, traps, stops, continues), and in particular
when it dies, the parent is sent a SIGCHLD signal. If parent handles it then

The parent can use the system call wait() or waitpid() or so, there are a few variations, to learn about the status of its stopped or deceased children. In the case of a deceased child, as soon as a status has been reported, the zombie vanishes.

If the parent is not interested it can say so explicitly (before the fork) using

signal(SIGCHLD, SIG_IGN);
or
struct sigaction act;
act.sa_handler = something;
act.sa_flags = SA_NOCLDWAIT;
sigaction (SIGCHLD, &act, NULL);

and as a result it will not hear about deceased children, and children will not be transformed into zombies. Default action for SIGCHLD is to ignore the signal but it would create zombie child process.

Returning from a signal handler
When the program was interrupted by a signal, its status (including all integer and floating point registers) was saved, to be restored just before execution continues at the point of interruption.
This means that the return from the signal handler is more complicated than an arbitrary procedure return - the saved state must be restored.
To this end, the kernel arranges that the return from the signal handler causes a jump

# include <stdio.h>
# include <signal.h>
# include <unistd.h>
void    sig_fun(int);
main() {
struct sigaction  signalact;
signalact.sa_handler = sig_fun;
sigemptyset(&signalact.sa_mask);
signalact.sa_flags =0;
sigaction(SIGINT, &signalact, 0);
while(1){
 printf("hello world
");
 sleep(1);
}
}
void    sig_fun(int signal) {
 printf("Hi, I got signal: %d
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",signal);
}

SIGCHLD
# include <signal.h>
void sig_init(void);
main() {
 unsigned int pid, i;
 if((pid = fork()) == 0) sleep(1);
 else {
  signal(SIGCHLD,sig_init);
  for(i=0;i < 1000000000;i++) ;
  printf("parent exiting
");
 }
}
void sig_init(void)
{
 printf("child terminated
");
}

SIGUSER

#include<stdio.h>
#include<signal.h>
static void sighandler(int);
int main(void) {
int i,parentpid,childpid,status;
/*prepare the sighandler routine to catch SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 */
if(signal(SIGUSR1,sighandler)==SIG_ERR) printf("Parent:Unable to create handler for SIGUSR1
");
parentpid=getpid();
if((childpid=fork())==0) {
 kill(parentpid,SIGUSR1);/* raise the SIGUSR1 signal*/
 printf("
Hi,child, I am here .............!

");
 if(signal(SIGUSR2,sighandler)==SIG_ERR) printf("Child:Unable to create handler for SIGUSR2
");
 /*Child Process begins busy-wait for a signal*/
 printf("child,waiting for singnal
");
 pause();
 //sleep(4);
 printf("child done %d
",getpid());
}
else {
 kill(childpid,SIGUSR2);/* raise the SIGUSR2 signal*/
 printf("Parent:waiting for child to terminate.....
");
 //sleep(1);
 wait(&status);/*Parent waiting for the child termination*/
 //kill(parentpid,SIGTERM);/*Parent  raising the SIGTERM signal*/
 printf("parent done %d
",getpid());
}
}
static void sighandler(int signo) {
switch(signo)
{
 case SIGUSR1:/* Incoming SIGUSR1 signal*/
  printf("Parent:Recieved SIGUSR1
");
  break;
 case SIGUSR2:/*Incoming SIGUSR2 signal*/
  printf("Recieved SIGUSR2
");
  break;
 default:
  printf("This should not be printed
");
}
 return;
}

Day 4 Morning
  10. Inter process communication

Introduction
* Sys V IPC is implemented as a single unit.
* System V IPC Provides three mechanisms namely:
 - Message Queues
 - Shared Memory
 - Semaphores
* Persist till explicitly delete or reboot the system.

Common Attributes
Each IPC objects has the following attributes.
 key
 id
 Owner
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 Permission
 Size
    - Message queue - used-bytes, number of messages
    - Shared memory - size, number of attach, status
    - Semaphore - number of semaphores in a set
    - The ipc_perm structure holds the common attributes of the resources.

System Limitations
$ ipcs -l
------ Shared Memory Limits --------
max number of segments = 4096
max seg size (kbytes) = 32768
max total shared memory (kbytes) = 8388608
min seg size (bytes) = 1
------ Semaphore Limits --------
max number of arrays = 128
max semaphores per array = 250
max semaphores system wide = 32000
max ops per semop call = 32
semaphore max value = 32767
------ Messages: Limits --------
max queues system wide = 16
max size of message (bytes) = 8192
default max size of queue (bytes) = 16384

Get a Key
* If we wish to communicate between different processes using an IPC resource, the first step is to create a shared unique identifier.
* The simplest form of the identifier is a number - the system generates this number dynamically for a given mechanism by using the ftok library function.
* But apart from the creator, other processes that want to communicate with the creator process should agree to the key value.
* Syntax: key_t ftok (const char *filename, int id);


Get an id
The syntax for a get function is:
  int xxxget (key_t key, int xxxflg);
  (xxx may be msg or shm or sem)
If successful, returns to an identifier; otherwise -1 for error.
The key can be generated in three different ways
  - from the ftok library function
  - by choosing some static positive integer value
  - by using the IPC_PRIVATE macro
flags commonly used with this function are IPC_CREAT and IPC_EXCL.


Control an Object
The syntax for the control function is:
   int xxxctl (int xxxid, int cmd, struct xxxid_ds *buffer);
   (xxx may be msg or shm or sem);
If successful, the xxxctl function returns zero, otherwise it returns -1.
The command argument may be
IPC_STAT
IPC_SET
IPC_RMID
Message Queues * Message queue overcomes FIFO limitation like storing data and setting message boundaries. * Create a message queue * Send message (s) to the queue * Any process who has permission to access the queue can retrieve message (s). * Remove the message queue. Each queue has the following msqid_ds structure associated with it:
struct msqid_ds {
struct ipc_perm msg_perm;
msgqnum_t msg_qnum; /*# of messages on queue */
msglen_t msg_qbytes; /*max # of bytes on queue */
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pid_t msg_lspid; /*pid of last msgsnd() */
pid_t msg_lrpid; /*pid of last msgrcv() */
time_t msg_stime; /*last-msgsnd() time */
time_t msg_rtime; /*last-msgrcv() time */
ime_t msg_ctime; /*last-change time */
..
..
};

msgget
* int msgget (key_t key, int msgflg);
* The first argument key can be passed from the return value of the ftok function or made IPC_PRIVATE.
* To create a message queue, IPC_CREAT ORed with access permission is set for the msgflg argument.
* Ex: msgid = msgget (key, IPC_CREAT | 0744);
msgid = msgget (key, 0);

msgsnd
* The syntax of the function is:
* int msgsnd (int msqid, structu msgbuf *msgp, size_t msgsz, int msgflg);
* Arguments:
- message queue ID
- address of the structure.
- size of the message text
- message flag
* 0 or IPC_NOWAIT
struct mymesg {
long mtype;
/* positive message type */
char mtext[512]; /* message data, of length nbytes */
};

msgrcv
 Syntax of the function is:
ssize_t msgrcv (int msqid, struct msgbuf *msgp, size_t msgsz, long msgtype, int msgflg);

msgtype argument is used to retrieve a particular
message.
 0 -retrieve in FIFO order
 +ve - retrieve the the exact value of the message type
 -ve - first message or <= to the absolute value. on success, msgrcv returns with the number of bytes actually copied into the message text

Destroying a Message Queue
There are many ways:
* From command line, using one of the ways
- $ ipcrm msg msqid
- $ ipcrm -q msqid
- $ ipcrm -Q msgkey
* Using system call
- msgctl (msgid, IPC_RMID, 0);


Message Queue: Pseudo Code
key = ftok (".", 'a');
msqid = msgget (key, IPC_CREAT|0666);
msgsnd (msqid, &struct, sizeof (struct), 0);
msgrcv (msqid, &struct, sizeof (struct), mtype, 0);
msgctl (msqid, IPC_RMID, NULL);
$ipcrm msg msqid

Limitations
* Message queues are effective if a small amount of data is transferred.
* Very expensive for large transfers.
* During message sending and receiving, the message is copied from user buffer into kernel buffer and vice versa
* So each message transfer involves two data copy operations, which results in poor performance of a system.
* A message in a queue can not be reused
Message send tests.c
#include<sys/ipc.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/msg.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<stdio.h>
struct message
{
long mtype;
char mtext[50];
};
main()
{
struct message m1;
int msgid;
if((msgid=msgget(1,0666|IPC_CREAT))==-1) {
 perror("msgget");
 exit(1);
}
m1.mtype=getpid();
printf("Process id of the current process is:%ld
",getpid());
printf("Enter the message you want to send to the queue
");
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fgets(m1.mtext,50,stdin);
if((n=msgsnd(msgid,&m1,50,0))==-1) {
 perror("msgsnd");
 exit(1);
}
printf("Message successfully sent
");
}

Message receive testr.c
#include<sys/ipc.h> #include<sys/types.h> #include<sys/msg.h> #include<unistd.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<stdio.h> struct message { long mtype; char mtext[50]; }; main() { struct message m1; int msgid; if((msgid=msgget(1,0666|IPC_CREAT))==-1) { perror("msgget"); exit(1); } if(msgrcv(msgid,&m1,10,0,MSG_NOERROR)==-1) { perror("msgsnd");
 exit(1);
}
printf("Message received from the process whose pid is:%ld
",m1.mtype);
printf("And the message is:%s
",m1.mtext);
}

Message control testc.c
#include<sys/ipc.h> #include<sys/types.h> #include<sys/msg.h> #include<unistd.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<stdio.h> main(){ int msgid; if((msgid=msgget(1,0))==-1) { perror("msgget"); exit(1); } if(msgctl(msgid,IPC_RMID,0)==-1) { perror("msgctl"); exit(1); } printf("Message queue successfully deleted "); }

Day 4 Morning
  10. Inter process communication

Shared Memory
* Very flexible and ease of use.
* Fastest IPC mechanisms
* shared memory is used to provide access to
  Global variable
  Shared libraries
  Word processors
  Multi-player gaming environment
  Http daemons
  Other programs written in languages like Perl, C etc.,


Shared Memory: Data Structures
The data structures used in shared memory are
  * shmid_ds
  * ipc_perm
  * Shminfo
  * shm_info
  * shmid_kernel

ipc_perm Structure

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struct ipc_perm {
__key_t __key;  - Key
__uid_t uid     - Owner's user ID
__gid_t gid;    - Owner's group ID
__uid_t cuid;   - Creator's user ID
__gid_t cgid;   - Creator's group ID
unsigned short int mode; - r/w permission unsigned short int
__seq;                  - Sequence number
};


shmid_ds
struct shmid_ds
{
struct ipc_perm shm_perm;
size_t shm_segsz;
__time_t shm_atime;
__time_t shm_dtime;
__time_t shm_ctime;
__pid_t shm_cpid;
__pid_t shm_lpid;
shmatt_t shm_nattch;
};

Steps to Access Shared Memory
The steps involved are:
* Creating shared memory
* Connecting to the memory & obtaining a pointer to the memory
* Reading/Writing & changing access mode to the memory
* Detaching from memory
* Deleting the shared segment
shmat
* Used to attach the created shared memory segment onto a process address space.
* void *shmat(int shmid,void *shmaddr,int shmflg)
* Example: data=shmat(shmid,(void *)0,0);
* A pointer is returned on the successful execution of the system call and the process can read or write to the segment using the pointer.


Reading / Writing to Shared Memory
* Reading or writing to a shared memory is the easiest
part.
* The data is written on to the shared memory as we do it
with normal memory using the pointers
* Eg. Read:
printf("SHM contents : %s
", data);
* Eg. Write:
prinf("Enter a String : ");
scanf(" %[^
]",data);


shmdt and shmctl
* The detachment of an attached shared memory segment is done by shmdt to pass the address of the pointer as an argument.
* Syntax: int shmdt(void *shmaddr);
* To remove shared memory call:
int shmctl(shmid,IPC_RMID,NULL);
* These functions return -1 on error and 0 on successful execution.

Shared Memory: Pseudo Code
* shmid = shmget (key, 1024, IPC_CREAT|0744);
* void *shmat (int shmid, void *shmaddr, int shmflg);
      if the shm is read only pass SHM_RDONLY else 0
* (void *)data = shmat (shmid, (void *)0, 0);
* int shmdt (void *shmaddr);
* int shmctl (shmid, IPC_RMID, NULL);

Limitations
* Data can either be read or written only. Append is not allowed.
* Race condition
- Since many processes can access the shared memory, any modification done by one process in the address space is visible to all other processes. Since the address space is a shared resource, the developer should implement a proper locking mechanism to prevent the race condition in the shared memory.
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Shared memory create
#include<sys/ipc.h>
#include<sys/shm.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
main()
{
int shmid,pos;
char *msg;

if((shmid=shmget(110,1024,IPC_CREAT|0666))==-1) {
 perror("shmget");
 exit(1);
}

msg=shmat(shmid,0,0);

printf("Enter the data you want to write into shared memory
");
fgets(msg,1024,stdin);
pos = strlen(msg);
strcpy(msg+pos-1,"World");
printf("Data successfully written
");

shmdt(msg);
}

Shared memory read
#include<sys/ipc.h> #include<sys/shm.h> #include<stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> main() { int shmid;
char *msg;

if((shmid=shmget(110,1024,0666|IPC_CREAT))==-1) {
 perror("shmget"); //get shrdmry id
 exit(1);
}

msg=shmat(shmid,0,0);
printf("Data written in the shared memory is:%s
",msg);

shmdt(msg); //to detach the memory location for further use
}

Shared memory control
#include<sys/ipc.h> #include<sys/shm.h> #include<stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> main() { int shmid; if((shmid=shmget(110,0,0))==-1) //110 is key { perror("shmid"); exit(1); } if(shmctl(shmid,IPC_RMID,0)==-1) { perror("shmctl"); exit(1); } printf("Shared memory successfully removed "); }

Day 4 Morning
  10. Inter process communication

Semaphores
* If a process wants to use the shared object, it will "lock" it by asking the semaphore to decrement the counter
* Depending upon the current value of the counter, the semaphore will either be able to carry out this operation, or will have to wait until the operation becomes possible
* The current value of counter is >0, the decrement operation will be possible. Otherwise, the process will have to wait

System V IPC: Semaphores
* System V semaphore provides a semaphore set
- that can include a number of semaphores. It is up to user to decide the number of semaphores in the set.
* Each semaphore in the set can be a binary or a counting semaphore. Each semaphore can be used to control access to one resource - by changing the value of semaphore count.

Semaphore: Initialization
union semun {
int val;
// value for SETVAL
struct semid_ds *buf; // buffer for IPC_STAT, IPC_SET
unsigned short int *array; // array for GETALL, SETALL
};
union semun arg;
semid = semget (key, 1, IPC_CREAT | 0644);
arg.val = 1; /* 1 for binary else > 1 for Counting Semaphore */
semctl (semid, 0, SETVAL, arg);

Semaphore: Implementation
struct sembuf {
short sem_num; /* semaphore number: 0 means first */
short sem_op; /* semaphore operation: lock or unlock */
short sem_flg; /* operation flags : 0, SEM_UNDO, IPC_NOWAIT */
};
struct sembuf buf = {0, -1, 0}; /* (-1 + previous value) */
semid = semget (key, 1, 0);
semop (semid, &buf, 1); /* locked */
-----Critical section--------
buf.sem_op = 1;
semop (semid, &buf, 1); /* unlocked */

# include <sys/types.h>
# include <sys/sem.h>
# include <sys/ipc.h>
# include <stdio.h>
# include<pthread.h>
# include<unistd.h>
union semun{
	int val;
	struct semid_ds   *buf;
	unsigned short  array;

	struct seminfo    *__buff;
};

void * th_fun(void *);

© www.minhinc.com
p90
union semun  u;
int    sid;
key_t  key;
int    pid,   sid;
struct sembuf su, sl;


main()
{
pthread_t	t1, t2, t3, t4;

unsigned short int  key;
key = ftok("semaphore.c",100);
sid = semget(key,1,IPC_CREAT | 0666);
printf("semaphore created by %d
",getpid());
u.val = 2;
semctl(sid,0,SETVAL,u);
printf("Semaphore initialized to %d
",u.val);

pid = getpid();

sl.sem_num = 0;
sl.sem_op = -1;
sl.sem_flg = SEM_UNDO ;
su = sl;
su.sem_op = 1;

pthread_create(&t1, NULL, th_fun,"Thread One");
pthread_create(&t2, NULL, th_fun,"Thread two");
pthread_create(&t3, NULL, th_fun,"Thread three");
pthread_create(&t4, NULL, th_fun,"Thread four");

pthread_join(t1,NULL);
pthread_join(t2,NULL);
pthread_join(t3,NULL);
pthread_join(t4,NULL);

//semctl(sid,0,IPC_RMID);
printf("Semaphore removed
");
}
void * th_fun(void *p)
{
char   *str;
int i = 0;

str = (char * )p;
printf("%s is Trying to lock semaphore  %d

",str, pid);
if(semop(sid,&sl,1) == 0)
 printf("%s   Succedd in LOck   %d

",str,pid);

while(++i < 3)	{
 printf("%s   Resourec use here %d

",str,pid);
 sleep(6);
}
semop(sid,&su,1);
printf("%s  Unlock and Bye   %d

",str,pid);
}
© www.minhinc.com
p91
 
Day 4 Morning
  11. Sockets

A socket is an abstraction of a communication endpoint. Just as they would use file descriptors to access files, applications use socket descriptors to access sockets. Socket descriptors are implemented as file descriptors in the UNIX System. Indeed, many of the functions that deal with file descriptors, such as read and write, will work with a socket descriptor.

To create a socket, we call the socket function.

#include <sys/socket.h>
int socket(int domain, int type, int protocol);

Returns: file (socket) descriptor if OK, -1 on error

Domain


Type


Protocol

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p92

socket() call is similar to open() system call.
slose - deallocates the socket
dup, dup2 - duplicates the file descriptor as normal
fchdir - fails with errno set to ENOTDIR
fchmod - unspecified
fchown - implementation defined
fcntl  -some commands supported, including F_DUPFD, F_DUPFD_CLOEXEC,          F_GETFD, F_GETFL, F_GETOWN, F_SETFD, F_SETFL, and F_SETOWN
fdatasync, fsync  - implementation defined
fstat - some stat structure members supported, but how left up to the implementation
ftruncate - unspecified
ioctl - some commands work, depending on underlying device driver
lseek - implementation defined (usually fails with errno set to ESPIPE)
mmap - unspecified
poll  - works as expected
pread and pwrite  - fails with errno set to ESPIPE
read and readv - equivalent to recv without any flags
select  - works as expected
write  and writev - equivalent to send without any flags

#include <sys/socket.h>
int shutdown(int sockfd, int how);

If how is SHUT_RD, then reading from the socket is disabled. If how is SHUT_WR, then we can't use the socket for transmitting data. We can use SHUT_RDWR to disable both data transmission and reception.

Given that we can close a socket, why is shutdown needed? There are several reasons. First, close will deallocate the network endpoint only when the last active reference is closed. If we duplicate the socket (with dup, for example), the socket won't be deallocated until we close the last file descriptor referring to it. The shutdown function allows us to deactivate a socket independently of the number of active file descriptors referencing it. Second, it is sometimes convenient to shut a socket down in one direction only. For example, we can shut a socket down for writing if we want the process we are communicating with to be able to tell when we are done transmitting data, while still allowing us to use the socket to receive data sent to us by the process.

Byte Ordering
The TCP/IP protocol suite uses big-endian byte order.


#include <arpa/inet.h>
uint32_t htonl(uint32_t hostint32);
                     Returns: 32-bit integer in network byte order
uint16_t htons(uint16_t hostint16);
                     Returns: 16-bit integer in network byte order
uint32_t ntohl(uint32_t netint32);
                     Returns: 32-bit integer in host byte order
uint16_t ntohs(uint16_t netint16);
                     Returns: 16-bit integer in host byte order
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p93
struct sockaddr_in {
sa_family_t sin_family;  /* address family */
in_port_t sin_port; /* port number */
struct in_addr sin_addr;  /* IPv4 address */
};

inet_ntop - network to presentation

#include <arpa/inet.h>
const char *inet_ntop(int domain, const void *restrict addr,
char *restrict str, socklen_t size);
Returns: pointer to address string on success, NULL on error
int inet_pton(int domain, const char *restrict str,
void *restrict addr);
Returns: 1 on success, 0 if the format is invalid, or -1 on error

Address Look Up
To iterate or set the network configuration on the machine

#include <netdb.h>
struct hostent *gethostent(void);
                Returns: pointer if OK, NULL on error
void sethostent(int stayopen);
void endhostent(void);

struct hostent {
char *h_name;
char **h_aliases;
int  h_addrtype;
int h_length;
char **h_addr_list;
.
};

DNS
gethostbyname and gethostbyaddr() are obselete against following api

#include <netdb.h>
struct netent *getnetbyaddr(uint32_t net, int type);
struct netent *getnetbyname(const char *name);
struct netent *getnetent(void);

All return: pointer if OK, NULL on error

void setnetent(int stayopen);
void endnetent(void);

The netent structure contains at least the following fields:

struct netent {
char n_name; /*network name */
char **n_aliases; /*alternate network name array pointer */
int n_addrtype; /*address type */
uint32_t n_net; /*network number */
..
};

We can map between protocol names and numbers with the following functions.

#include <netdb.h>
struct protoent *getprotobyname(const char *name);
struct protoent *getprotobynumber(int proto);
struct protoent *getprotoent(void);

All return: pointer if OK, NULL on error

void setprotoent(int stayopen);
void endprotoent(void);

The protoent structure as defined by POSIX.1 has at least the following members:

struct protoent {
char *p_name; /* protocol name */
char **p_aliases; /* pointer to alternate protocol name array */
int p_proto;/* protocol number */
..
};

© www.minhinc.com
p94
Services are represented by the port number portion of the address. Each service is offered on a unique, well-known port number. We can map a service name to a port number with getservbyname, map a port number to a service name with getservbyport, or scan the services database sequentially with getservent.

#include <netdb.h>
struct servent *getservbyname(const char *name, const char *proto);
struct servent *getservbyport(int port, const char *proto);
struct servent *getservent(void);

All return: pointer if OK, NULL on error

void setservent(int stayopen);
void endservent(void);

The servent structure is defined to have at least the following members:

struct servent {
char *s_name;
char **s_aliases;
int s_port;
char *s_proto;
..
};

Day 4 Morning
  11. Sockets

#include <sys/socket.h>
int bind(int sockfd, const struct sockaddr *addr, socklen_t len);

Returns: 0 if OK, -1 on error

* sockfd - the socket file descriptor returned by socket().
* addr - a pointer to a struct sockaddr that contains information about IP address and port number.
* len - set to sizeof (struct sockaddr)

int connect (int sockfd, struct sockaddr *serv_addr, int addrlen);
* sockfd - the socket file descriptor returned by socket().
* serv_addr - is a struct sockaddr containing the destination port and IP address.
* addrlen - set to sizeof (struct sockaddr).

int listen (int sockfd,int backlog);
* sockfd - the socket file descriptor returned by socket().
* backlog - the number of connections allowed on the incoming queue.
* Backlog should never be zero as servers always expect connection from client.
* The listen function converts an unconnected socket into a passive socket.
* On successful execution of listen is indicating that the kernel should accept incoming connection requests directed to this socket.
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int accept (int sockfd, void *addr, int *addrlen);

sockfd -  the socket file descriptor returned by socket().
addr -  a pointer to a struct sockaddr_in. The information about the incoming connection like IP address and port number are stored.
addrlen - a local integer variable that should be set to sizeof (struct
sockaddr_in) before its address is passed to accept().

close (sockfd);
* Close system call prevents any more reads and writes to the socket. For attempting to read or write the socket on the remote end will receive an error.


int shutdown (int sockfd, int how);
sockfd - socket file descriptor of the socket to be shutdown.
how - if it is
 0 - Further receives are disallowed
 1 - Further sends are disallowed
 2 - Further sends and receives are disallowed.
The shutdown system call gives more control (than close (sockfd) over how the socket descriptor can be closed.

Typical server code

struct sockaddr_in serv, cli;
sd = socket (AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
serv.sin_family = AF_INET;
serv.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
serv.sin_port = htons (portno);
bind (sd, &serv, sizeof (serv));
listen (sd, 5);
nsd = accept (sd, &cli, &sizeof (cli));
read / write (nsd, ....);

Typical Client code
struct sockaddr_in serv;
sd =socket(AF_INET,SOCK_STREM, 0);
serv.sin_family = AF_INET;
serv.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("ser ip");
serv.sin_port = htons (portno);
connect (sd, &server, sizeof (server));
read / write (sd, ....);

Iterative Server
One client request at a time.
nsd = accept (sd, &cli,...);
while (1) {
read/write(nsd, ...);
}

Concurrent Server
Many clients requests can be serviced concurrently
while (1) {
nsd =(accept (sd, &cli, ....);
if (!fork( )) {
close(sd);
read/write(nsd, .....);
exit();
} else
close(nsd);
}

/* This is a program which illustrates the concurrent server by creating a child process */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/socket.h>
#include<netinet/in.h>
#include<arpa/inet.h>
#define MYPORT 1034
main()
{
int pid,sd,nsd,dat,yes=1;
char message[40];
socklen_t length;
struct sockaddr_in server,client;

if((sd=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,0))==-1) {
 perror("socket");
 exit(1);
}
server.sin_port=htons(MYPORT);
server.sin_family=PF_INET;
server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("192.168.2.20");
	
if(bind(sd,(struct sockaddr  *)&server,sizeof(server))==-1) {
 perror("bind");
 exit(1);
}
if(listen(sd,1)==-1) {
 perror("listen");
 exit(1);
}

/*A child process is created for accepting connections*/
printf("Waiting for connection.............
");
pid=fork();
while(1)
{
 if(pid==0)
 {
  if((nsd=accept(sd,(struct sockaddr *)&client,&length))==-1) {
   perror("accept");
   exit(1);
  }
© www.minhinc.com
p96
  printf("Got connection from client:%s
",inet_ntoa(client.sin_addr));
  /*else fragment is the parent process taking care of send and receive to clients*/
  if((dat=recv(nsd,message,40,0))==-1) {
   perror("recv");
   exit(1);
  }
  message[dat]='\0';
  printf("Data received is : %s
",message);
  printf("Enter the data you want to send to client
");
  fgets(message,40,stdin);
  send(nsd,message,40,0);
 }	
}
//close(sd);
}

Day 4 Morning
  11. Sockets

Client and Server both has to use
include <sys/socket.h>
ssize_t sendto(int sockfd, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, int flags, const struct sockaddr *destaddr, socklen_t destlen);
Returns: number of bytes sent if OK, -1 on error

#include <sys/socket.h>
ssize_t recvfrom(int sockfd, void *restrict buf, size_t len, int flags, struct sockaddr *restrict addr, socklen_t *restrict addrlen);

Returns: length of message in bytes, 0 if no messages are available and peer has done an orderly shutdown, or -1 on error
© www.minhinc.com
p97
 
Day 5 Morning
  12. Network Programming

Tcpclient

#include<sys/socket.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<netinet/in.h>
#include<arpa/inet.h>
#include<stdio.h>

#define PORT 1034

struct sockaddr_in server;
main()
{
int n,sd,length;
char msg[40];
//length=sizeof(client);
if((sd=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,0))==-1) {
 perror("socket");
 exit(1);
}
server.sin_family=PF_INET;
server.sin_port=htons(PORT);
//server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("192.168.1.2");
server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("127.0.0.1");
if(connect(sd,(struct sockaddr *)&server,sizeof(server))==-1) {
 perror("connect");
 exit(1);
}

printf("Enter the message you want to send to server
");
fgets(msg,40,stdin);
send(sd,msg,40,0);
printf("Waiting for message from server..............
");
n=recv(sd,msg,40,0);
msg[n]='\0';

printf("Message received from server is:%s
",msg);
close(sd);	
}
Tcpserver

#include<stdio.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/socket.h>
#include<netinet/in.h>
#include<arpa/inet.h>
#define MYPORT 1034
main()
{
int sd,pid,nsd,dat,yes=1;
char message[40];
struct sockaddr_in server,client;
socklen_t length;
if((sd=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,0))==-1) {
 perror("socket");
 exit(1);
}
server.sin_port=htons(MYPORT);
server.sin_family=PF_INET;
//server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("192.168.1.2");
server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("127.0.0.1");

/*if(setsockopt(sd,SOL_SOCKET,SO_REUSEADDR,&yes,sizeof(int))==-1) {
 perror("setsockopt");
 exit(1);
}*/
	
if(bind(sd,(struct sockaddr  *)&server,sizeof(server))==-1) {
 perror("bind");
 exit(1);
}

if(listen(sd,5)==-1) {
 perror("listen");
 exit(1);
}
printf("Waiting for connection.............
");
if((nsd=accept(sd,(struct sockaddr *)&client,&length))==-1) {
 perror("accept");
 exit(1);
}
printf("Got connection from client:%s
",inet_ntoa(client.sin_addr));

if((dat=recv(nsd,message,40,0))==-1) {
 perror("recv");
 exit(1);
}
message[dat]='\0';
printf("Data received is : %s
",message);
printf("Enter the data you want to send to client
");
fgets(message,40,stdin);
send(nsd,message,40,0);
		
close(sd);
}

Day 5 Morning
  12. Network Programming

udpclient
#include<sys/socket.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<netinet/in.h>
#include<arpa/inet.h>
© www.minhinc.com
p98
#include<stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define PORT 1034

main()
{
int n,sd,length;
char msg[40];
struct sockaddr_in server,client;
if((sd=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,0))==-1) {
 perror("socket");
 exit(1);
}

client.sin_family=PF_INET;
client.sin_port=htons(PORT);
//client.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("192.168.1.2");
client.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("127.0.0.1");

printf("Enter the message you want to send to server
");
fgets(msg,40,stdin);
if(sendto(sd,msg,40,0,(struct sockaddr *)&client,sizeof(server))==-1) {
 perror("sendto");
 exit(1);
}
printf("Waiting for message from server..............
");
length=sizeof(client);
n=recvfrom(sd,msg,40,0,(struct sockaddr *)&server,&length);
msg[n]='\0';

printf("Message received from server is:%s
",msg);
}

udpserver
#include<stdio.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/socket.h>
#include<netinet/in.h>
#include<arpa/inet.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define MYPORT 1034


main()
{
int sd,nsd,dat,length,yes=1;
char message[40];
struct sockaddr_in server,client;

if((sd=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,0))==-1) {
 perror("socket");
 exit(1);
}
server.sin_port=htons(MYPORT);
server.sin_family=PF_INET;
//server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("192.168.1.2");
server.sin_addr.s_addr=inet_addr("127.0.0.1");

/*if(setsockopt(sd,SOL_SOCKET,SO_REUSEADDR,&yes,sizeof(int))==-1) {
 perror("setsockopt");
 exit(1);
}*/

if(bind(sd,(struct sockaddr  *)&server,sizeof(server))==-1) {
 perror("bind");
 exit(1);
}

length=sizeof(client);
if((dat=recvfrom(sd,message,40,0,(struct sockaddr *)&client,&length))==-1) {
 perror("recvfrom");
 exit(1);
}

printf("Got connection from client:%s
",inet_ntoa(client.sin_addr));

message[dat]='\0';

printf("Data received is : %s
",message);
printf("Enter the data you want to send to client
");
fgets(message,40,stdin);
sendto(sd,message,40,0,(struct sockaddr *)&client,length);
}

Day 5 Morning
  12. Network Programming

netlink - Communication between kernel and userspace (PF_NETLINK)

#include <asm/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <linux/netlink.h>

netlink_socket = socket(PF_NETLINK, socket_type, netlink_family);

Netlink is used to transfer information between kernel and userspace processes. It consists of a standard sockets-based interface for userspace processes and an internal kernel API for kernel modules.

Netlink is a datagram-oriented service. Both SOCK_RAW and SOCK_DGRAM are valid values for socket_type. However, the netlink protocol does not distinguish between datagram and raw sockets.

netlink_family selects the kernel module or netlink group to communicate with. The currently assigned netlink families are:
© www.minhinc.com
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NETLINK_ROUTE
Receives routing and link updates and may be used to modify the routing tables (both IPv4 and IPv6), IP addresses, link parameters, neighbour setups, queueing disciplines, traffic classes and packet classifiers
NETLINK_W1
Messages from 1-wire subsystem. Example creates a NETLINK_ROUTE netlink socket which will listen to the RTM-GRP_LINK (network interface create/delete/up/down events) and RTMGRP_IPV4_IFADDR (IPv4 addresses add/delete events) multicast groups.
struct sockaddr_nl sa;

memset (&sa, 0, sizeof(sa));
snl.nl_family = AF_NETLINK;
snl.nl_groups = RTMGRP_LINK | RTMGRP_IPV4_IFADDR;

fd = socket(AF_NETLINK, SOCK_RAW, NETLINK_ROUTE);
bind(fd, (struct sockaddr*)&sa, sizeof(sa));

Example demonstrates how to send a netlink message to the kernel (pid 0). Note
that application must take care of message sequence numbers in order to reliably track acknowledgements.

struct nlmsghdr *nh;    /* The nlmsghdr with payload to send. */
struct sockaddr_nl sa;
struct iovec iov = { (void *) nh, nh->nlmsg_len };
struct msghdr msg;

msg = { (void *)&sa, sizeof(sa), &iov, 1, NULL, 0, 0 };
memset (&sa, 0, sizeof(sa));
sa.nl_family = AF_NETLINK;
nh->nlmsg_pid = 0;
nh->nlmsg_seq = ++sequence_number;
/* Request an ack from kernel by setting NLM_F_ACK. */
nh->nlmsg_flags |= NLM_F_ACK;

sendmsg (fd, &msg, 0);

And the last example is about reading netlink message.

int len;
char buf[4096];
struct iovec iov = { buf, sizeof(buf) };
struct sockaddr_nl sa;
struct msghdr msg;
struct nlmsghdr *nh;

msg = { (void *)&sa, sizeof(sa), &iov, 1, NULL, 0, 0 };
len = recvmsg (fd, &msg, 0);

for (nh = (struct nlmsghdr *) buf; NLMSG_OK (nh, len);
nh = NLMSG_NEXT (nh, len)) {
/* The end of multipart message. */
if (nh->nlmsg_type == NLMSG_DONE)
 return;

if (nh->nlmsg_type == NLMSG_ERROR)
/* Do some error handling. */
...

/* Continue with parsing payload. */
...
}
© www.minhinc.com
p100
 
Day 5 Morning
  13. Programming and Debugging tools

Tracing Processes
* strace command
 - trace system calls and signals
 - strace runs until the given command exits
 - It is a useful tool for diagnostic, instructional and debugging
* ptrace system call
 - Process trace

Strace

#strace -c -e trace=file mkfifo -m 0744 myfifo
execve("/usr/bin/mkfifo", ["mkfifo", "-m", "0744", "myfifo"]) = 0


% time seconds us/call calls syscall
------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------
 47.62 0.000020               20        1         mknod
 33.33 0.000014                4        4         open
 11.90 0.000005                5        1         chmod
  7.14 0.000003                1        3         fstat
------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------
100.00 0.000042                          9

1. Trace the Execution of an Executable
$  strace ls
execve("/bin/ls", ["ls"], [/* 21 vars */]) = 0
brk(0)
access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
mmap2(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0xb78c7000
access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK)      = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY)      = 3
fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=65354, ...}) = 0
...
...
2. Trace a Specific System Calls in an Executable Using Option -e
$ strace -e open ls
open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY)      = 3
open("/lib/libselinux.so.1", O_RDONLY)  = 3
open("/lib/librt.so.1", O_RDONLY)       = 3


open("/lib/libacl.so.1", O_RDONLY)      = 3
open("/lib/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY)        = 3
open("/lib/libdl.so.2", O_RDONLY)       = 3
open("/lib/libpthread.so.0", O_RDONLY)  = 3
open("/lib/libattr.so.1", O_RDONLY)     = 3
open("/proc/filesystems", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 3
open("/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive", O_RDONLY|O_LARGEFILE) = 3
open(".", O_RDONLY|O_NONBLOCK|O_LARGEFILE|O_DIRECTORY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3

3. Execute Strace on a Running Linux Process Using Option -p
$  strace -p 1725 -o output.txt
attach: ptrace(PTRACE_ATTACH, ...): Operation not permitted
Could not attach to process.  If your uid matches the uid of the target
process, check the setting of /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope, or try
again as the root user.  For more details, see /etc/sysctl.d/10-ptrace.conf

4. Print Relative Time for System Calls Using Option -r

Strace also has the option to print the execution time for each system calls as shown below.

$ strace -r ls
0.000000 execve("/bin/ls", ["ls"], [/* 37 vars */]) = 0
0.000846 brk(0)                    = 0x8418000
0.000143 access("/etc/ld.so.nohwcap", F_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
0.000163 mmap2(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0) = 0xb787b000
0.000119 access("/etc/ld.so.preload", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
0.000123 open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY) = 3
0.000099 fstat64(3, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=67188, ...}) = 0
0.000155 mmap2(NULL, 67188, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, 3, 0) = 0xb786a000
...

© www.minhinc.com
p101
Day 5 Morning
  13. Programming and Debugging tools

ltrace' is another Linux Utility similar to 'strace'. However, ltrace lists all the library calls being called in an executable or a running process.

This tool is very useful for debugging user-space applications to determine which library call is failing.

It is also capable of receiving signals for segmentation faults, etc.

Assume the code
1. #include <stdio.h>
2.  #include <unistd.h>
3..
4.  int main()
5.  {
6.     FILE *fp = fopen("rfile.txt", "w+");
7.     fprintf(fp+1, "Invalid Write
");
8.     fclose(fp);
9.     return 0;
10. }

Lets compile and run it.
Code:

x@ubuntu:~/source$ gcc file.c -Wall -o file
x@ubuntu:~/source$./file
Segmentation fault (core dumped)

That is a segmentation fault. Lets use ltrace to debug and see what is happening.
Code:

x@ubuntu:~/source$ltrace ./file
 __libc_start_main(0x8048454, 1, 0xbfc19db4, 0x80484c0, 0x8048530 <unfinished ...>
 fopen("rfile.txt", "w+")                          = 0x9160008
 fwrite("Invalid Write
", 1, 14, 0x916009c <unfinished ...>
 --- SIGSEGV (Segmentation fault) ---
 +++ killed by SIGSEGV +++

Day 5 Morning
  13. Programming and Debugging tools

Mtrace, memory trace. Follow the steps to use it

1. Call mtrace() When Your Program Starts
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <mcheck.h>
int main() {
 char *string;
 mtrace();
 string = malloc(100 * sizeof(char));
 return 0;
}

2. Compile Program with Debugging Options
$gcc -g -o mtrace_test mtrace_test.c

3. Set MALLOC_TRACE
For bash
export MALLOC_TRACE="mtrace.out"

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p102
For C shell, it would be:
setenv MALLOC_TRACE mtrace.out
4. Run The Program Once
5. View The Data
mtrace <prog name> <output log file name>
mtrace mtrace_test mtrace.out
Assuming the C code at the beginning was the code in mtrace_test.c, the following output would be produced:

Memory not freed:
-----------------
   Address     Size     Caller
0x0000000000501460     0x64  at /array/home/dcurrie/test/mtrace/mtrace_test.c:11

Valgrind
Finding Memory Leaks With Valgrind

eample.c
include <stdlib.h>
int main()
{
    char *x = malloc(100); /* or, in C++, "char *x = new char[100] */
    x[10] = 'a';
    return 0;
}
$gcc example.c -o example

$valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=yes example
==2116== 100 bytes in 1 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 1 of 1
==2116==    at 0x1B900DD0: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:131)
==2116==    by 0x804840F: main (in /home/cprogram/example1)

Finding Invalid Pointer Use With Valgrind
valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=yes example

results in the following warning

==9814==  Invalid write of size 1
==9814==    at 0x804841E: main (example2.c:6)
==9814==  Address 0x1BA3607A is 0 bytes after a block of size 10 alloc'd
==9814==    at 0x1B900DD0: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:131)
==9814==    by 0x804840F: main (example2.c:5)
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p103
 
Day 5 Morning
  14. Device Driver Introduction

Day 5 Morning
  14. Device Driver Introduction

Day 5 Morning
  14. Device Driver Introduction

Day 5 Morning
  14. Device Driver Introduction

Day 5 Morning
  14. Device Driver Introduction
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p104